[Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer].Girard, J., Unkovic, J., Delahayes, J., and Lafille, C. [Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil.The effect of pleasant ambient odour on human visual vigilance.Hongratanaworakit, T. Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.Kaddu, S., Kerl, H., and Wolf, P.
Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.Kimura, M., Mori, T., Suzuki, H., Endo, S., and Kawano, K. EEG Changes in Odor Effects after the Stress of Long Monotonous Work.Mandalari, G., Bennett, R. N., Bisignano, G., Saija, A., Dugo, G., Lo Curto, R.
B., Faulds, C. B., and Waldron, K. W. Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.Mollace, V., Sacco, I., Janda, E., Malara, C., Ventrice, D., Colica, C., Visalli, V., Muscoli, S., Ragusa, S., Muscoli, C., Rotiroti, D., and Romeo, F.
Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies.Morliere, P., Huppe, G., Averbeck, D., Young, A. R., Santus, R., and Dubertret, L. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil.Statti, G.
A., Conforti, F., Sacchetti, G., Muzzoli, M., Agrimonti, C., and Menichini, F. Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.Yasui, Y. and Hirone, T. Action spectrum for bergamot-oil phototoxicity measured by sunburn cell counting.Young, A.
R., Walker, S. L., Kinley, J.
S., Plastow, S. R., Averbeck, D., Morliere, P., and Dubertret, L. Phototumorigenesis studies of 5-methoxypsoralen in bergamot oil: evaluation and modification of risk of human use in an albino mouse skin model.Zaynoun, S. T., Johnson, B.
E., and Frain-Bell, W. A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent.Zaynoun, S.
T., Johnson, B. E., and Frain-Bell, W. A study of oil of bergamot and its importance as a phototoxic agent.Factors which affect the phototoxic reaction induced by bergamot oil and psoralen derivatives.Bruno A, Pandolfo G, Crucitti M, Cedro C, Zoccali RA, Muscatello MRA.Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction Supplementation Improves Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia: Data From an 8-Week, Open-Label Pilot Study.Bruno A, Pandolfo G, Crucitti M, et al. Low-Dose of Bergamot-Derived Polyphenolic Fraction (BPF) Did Not Improve Metabolic Parameters in Second Generation Antipsychotics-Treated Patients: Results from a 60-days Open-Label Study.Cai Y, Xing G, Shen T, Zhang S, Rao J, Shi R. Effects of 12-week supplementation of Citrus bergamia extracts-based formulation CitriCholess on cholesterol and body weight in older adults with dyslipidemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Cicero AFG, Fogacci F, Bove M, Giovannini M, Borghi C. Three-arm, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial evaluating the metabolic effect of a combined nutraceutical containing a bergamot standardized flavonoid extract in dyslipidemic overweight subjects.Da Pozzo E, De Leo M, Faraone I, et al.
Antioxidant and antisenescence effects of bergamot juice.Protective effects of bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso & Poiteau) juice in rats fed with high-fat diet.Ferlazzo N, Cirmi S, Calapai G, Ventura-Spagnolo E, Gangemi S, Navarra M. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand?Ferro Y, Montalcini T, Mazza E, et al.
Randomized clinical trial: Bergamot citrus and wild cardoon reduce liver steatosis and body weight in non-diabetic individuals aged over 50 years.Florentin M, Liberopoulos E, Elisaf MS, Tsimihodimos V. No effect of fenugreek, bergamot and olive leaf extract on glucose homeostasis in patients with prediabetes: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study.The effect of bergamot-derived polyphenolic fraction on LDL small dense particles and non alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with metabolic syndrome.Gliozzi M, Walker R, Muscoli S, et al.
Bergamot polyphenolic fraction enhances rosuvastatin-induced effect on LDL-cholesterol, LOX-1 expression and protein kinase B phosphorylation in patients with hyperlipidemia.Bergamot aromatherapy for medical office-induced anxiety among children with an autism spectrum disorder: A randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial.Izzo A, D'Arienzo M, Sergiacomi P, Marrese C, Bonucci M, Riccioni C. Prospective Observational Study: The Role of a Bergamot Based Nutraceutical in Dyslipidaemia and Arthralgia for Subjects Undergoing Aromatase Inhibitors Based Therapy.McDonnell B, Newcomb P. Trial of essential oils to improve sleep for patients in cardiac rehabilitation.The synergistic effect of Citrus bergamia and Cynara cardunculus extracts on vascular inflammation and oxidative stress in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.Navarra M, Mannucci C, Delbò M, Calapai G. Citrus bergamia essential oil: from basic research to clinical application.Navarro-Triviño FJ, Jadczak P, Ruiz-Villaverde R. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Lavandula angustifolia and cross-reaction with Citrus bergamia essential oils in an aromatherapist.Ndao DH, Ladas EJ, Cheng B, Sands SA, Snyder KT, Garvin JH Jr, Kelly KM.Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial.Pasyar N, Rambod M, Araghi F. The effect of bergamot orange essence on anxiety, salivary cortisol, and alpha amylase in patients prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A controlled trial study.Rombolà L, Scuteri D, Adornetto A, et al.
Anxiolytic-like effects of bergamot essential oil are insensitive to flumazenil in rats.Rondanelli M, Peroni G, Riva A, et al. Bergamot phytosome improved visceral fat and plasma lipid profiles in overweight and obese class I subject with mild hypercholesterolemia: A randomized placebo controlled trial.Toth PP, Patti AM, Nikolic D, et al. Bergamot reduces plasma lipids, atherogenic small dense LDL, and subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia: A 6 months prospective study.Xiong M, Li Y, Tang P, Zhang Y, Cao M, Ni J, Xing M. Effectiveness of aromatherapy massage and inhalation on symptoms of depression in Chinese community-dwelling older adults.
Bergamot: Health Benefits, Health Risks, Uses, and More
It comes from the Citrus bergamia plant, a fruit tree believed to be native to the Mediterranean region.People use extracts from bergamot’s sour juice and oil from its peel for a variety of things including: Scents for personal care products.There hasn’t been enough research yet to confirm the results, and there’s no conclusive evidence that it can help with depression in other populations. .
Can Bergamot Extract Lower Cholesterol? – Cleveland Clinic
A: Having high levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in your blood contributes to plaque buildup in your arteries, which puts you at greater risk for having a heart attack or stroke.Your doctor may also recommend a statin or another cholesterol-lowering medication to help lower your risk for heart disease and stroke. .
Does Bergamot Lower Cholesterol?
Four recent human studies have suggested that thanks to the flavonoids (plant-based antioxidants) it contains, bergamot extract can help reduce high cholesterol.One study published in 2013 showed that cholesterol dropped significantly among 77 patients who took 1,000 mg of bergamot extract daily for one month, enabling them to cut their statin dose in half.Other less serious side effects that tend to disappear over time include upset stomach, gas, constipation, and abdominal pain or cramps.For moderately elevated cholesterol, I recommend non-prescription red rice yeast, a natural source of statins with fewer side effects.Toth et al, “Bergamot Reduces Plasma Lipids, Atherogenic Small Dense LDL, and Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Subjects with Moderate Hypercholesterolemia: A 6 Months Prospective Study.” Frontiers in Pharmacology, January 6, 2016, doi: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00299. .
The Best Essential Oils for Anxiety
Some of the possible uses of essential oils in aromatherapy include things like managing pain, helping with digestion, and reducing stress and anxiety.While scientific evidence for many of these uses is lacking, research is ongoing to learn more about the benefits of essential oils.In addition to being used as scents for a variety of consumer and natural products, some essential oils may be used for various health applications.It’s possible to obtain essential oils from many different parts of a plant, including, but not limited to the leaves, flowers, and roots.It’s important to know that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) doesn’t regulate essential oils, so be diligent in your practice.One theory of how aromatherapy works is that essential oils can stimulate the smell receptors in your nose, which then sends messages to your nervous system.Some also believe that essential oils can have a subtle effect on the body’s chemical and energy systems.Valerian essential oil comes from the roots of the plant and has a bold scent that may be described as woody, earthy, or musky.Best used for: In addition to its uses for sleep and anxiety, valerian can also be used to help with headache, trembling, and heart palpitations.An increase in gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and monoamine neurotransmitters were also observed in the brain, indicating that the anxiety-reducing effects of jatamansi operate through this pathway.It also has a sedative effect and may help with sleep troubles, including if feelings of stress or anxiety are keeping you up at night.According to 2012 research, lavender aromatherapy is thought to calm anxiety by impacting the limbic system, the part of the brain that controls emotions.It found that inhaling lavender could significantly lower anxiety levels measured using a clinically validated scale.Some examples include as part of a skincare regimen to help with conditions like eczema, acne, and burns.According to 2014 research , holy basil is an adaptogenic herb that has shown promise in treating physical and mental stress.A 2017 review notes that some studies of holy basil report a 31.6 to 39 percent reduction in stress-related symptoms in some individuals.In aromatherapy, sweet basil is thought to help calm the mind and relieve stress.Research into using sweet basil for anxiety is rather limited, with many studies focusing on animal models.According to a 2015 study in mice, the phenol compounds in sweet basil oil helped relieve anxiety and had a sedative effect.Best used for: Sweet basil oil may be used for digestive upset, skin care, and pain or inflammation.The essential oil is derived from the peel or zest of the fruit and has an invigorating citrus scent.According to a 2015 study , both animal and human trials have found that bergamot helps relieve anxiety and improve mood.A small 2017 study examined the effects of inhalation of bergamot essential oil in women in the waiting room of a mental health treatment center.Researchers found that 15 minutes of exposure to bergamot essential oil promoted an increase in positive feelings.A 2017 study looked at using chamomile supplements for individuals with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Researchers found that chamomile supplementation reduced the symptoms of mild to moderate GAD.Best used for: Chamomile oil can also be used to help with digestive upset, healing of wounds or ulcers, and easing pain and inflammation.It found that aromatherapy self-massage of the abdomen with the essential oil mixture was associated with lower levels of pain and anxiety.How to use: Soak your feet in a basin filled with warm water and diluted rose essential oil.You can also add rose oil to your favorite non-scented moisturizer or shea butter and massage into skin.Soak your feet in a basin filled with warm water and diluted rose essential oil.You can also add rose oil to your favorite non-scented moisturizer or shea butter and massage into skin.Best used for: Rose oil may help lift mood or ease the symptoms of PMS, such as menstrual cramps.Like other essential oils we’ve discussed, research into vetiver and anxiety in humans is currently limited.Researchers found that the topical application of frankincense oil appeared to counteract the effects of stress in the rats.A 2020 review notes that two studies of frankincense aromatherapy significantly reduced anxiety in women during labor.Musky patchouli is used in ayurvedic medicine to address a variety of conditions, including stress and anxiety.A 2020 study assessed the effects of inhaled patchouli oil on emergency room nurses.How to use: To relieve anxiety, inhale patchouli oil directly or add it diluted to a warm bath or room diffuser.To relieve anxiety, inhale patchouli oil directly or add it diluted to a warm bath or room diffuser.A small 2017 study looked at the effects of geranium oil on anxiety in individuals who had been hospitalized due to a heart attack.How to use: Apply a few drops of geranium oil to a cotton ball and waft under your nose a few times.Apply a few drops of geranium oil to a cotton ball and waft under your nose a few times.But according to a 2011 study , taking lemon balm capsules may help people with mild to moderate anxiety disorders.The study participants that consumed a beverage with lemon balm extract reported mood improvement and lower levels of anxiety.How to use: Lemon balm is a great oil to add to a diffuser for a fresh scent that covers an entire room.Lemon balm is a great oil to add to a diffuser for a fresh scent that covers an entire room.Best used for: In addition to headache, sweet marjoram oil can be used for aches and pains, digestive upset, and asthma.In a 2014 study using mice, researchers gave fennel essential oil orally at various doses.According to a 2017 study, fennel supplements helped with menopause symptoms such as anxiety, hot flashes, sleep problems, and depression.How to use: Add diluted fennel oil to a warm bath to help relax your body and your mind.Add diluted fennel oil to a warm bath to help relax your body and your mind. .
Bergamot: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions
ARAGONA, G. and CUZZOCREA, G.
[Presence of a combined form of vitamin C in the bergamot fruit.].Autier, P., Dore, J. F., Schifflers, E., Cesarini, J. P., Bollaerts, A., Koelmel, K. F., Gefeller, O., Liabeuf, A., Lejeune, F., Lienard, D., and .Berliocchi, L., Ciociaro, A., Russo, R., Cassiano, M. G., Blandini, F., Rotiroti, D., Morrone, L. A., and Corasaniti, M.
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Analysis of limette and bergamot distilled essential oils by HPLC.Buyukbalci, A. and El, S.
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Dangers of the intake of psoralens and subsequent UV exposure producing significant burns.Corasaniti, M. T., Maiuolo, J., Maida, S., Fratto, V., Navarra, M., Russo, R., Amantea, D., Morrone, L.
A., and Bagetta, G. Cell signaling pathways in the mechanisms of neuroprotection afforded by bergamot essential oil against NMDA-induced cell death in vitro.Cottrell, S., Oliver, K., Lake, B. G., and Powell, C. J.
Strain-specific enhancement or inhibition of coumarin hepatotoxicity in mice following pretreatment with two different liver enzyme-inducing agents.Crawford, G. H., Katz, K. A., Ellis, E., and James, W. D.
Use of aromatherapy products and increased risk of hand dermatitis in massage therapists.De Pinho, P. G., Falque, E., Castro, M., Oliveira E Silva, Machado, B., and Ferreira, A.
C. Further insights into the floral character of Touriga Nacional wines.Dijoux, N., Guingand, Y., Bourgeois, C., Durand, S., Fromageot, C., Combe, C., and Ferret, P. J.Assessment of the phototoxic hazard of some essential oils using modified 3T3 neutral red uptake assay.Dubertret, L., Serraf-Tircazes, D., Jeanmougin, M., Morliere, P., Averbeck, D., and Young, A. R.
Phototoxic properties of perfumes containing bergamot oil on human skin: photoprotective effect of UVA and UVB sunscreens.Fisher, K. and Phillips, C.
In vitro inhibition of vancomycin-susceptible and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis in the presence of citrus essential oils.The survival of three strains of Arcobacter butzleri in the presence of lemon, orange and bergamot essential oils and their components in vitro and on food.Gattuso, G., Caristi, C., Gargiulli, C., Bellocco, E., Toscano, G., and Leuzzi, U. Flavonoid glycosides in bergamot juice (Citrus bergamia Risso).Girard, J., Unkovic, J., Delahayes, J., and Lafille, C.
[Phototoxicity of Bergamot oil.The effect of pleasant ambient odour on human visual vigilance.Guerrini, A., Lampronti, I., Bianchi, N., Zuccato, C., Breveglieri, G., Salvatori, F., Mancini, I., Rossi, D., Potenza, R., Chiavilli, F., Sacchetti, G., Gambari, R., and Borgatti, M. Bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) fruit extracts as gamma-globin gene expression inducers: phytochemical and functional perspectives.Guth, S., Habermeyer, M., Schrenk, D., and Eisenbrand, G.
Update of the toxicological assessment of furanocoumarins in foodstuffs (Update of the SKLM statement of 23/24 September 2004)--Opinion of the Senate Commission on Food Safety (SKLM) of the German Research Foundation (DFG).Hongratanaworakit, T. Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans.Hotta, M., Nakata, R., Katsukawa, M., Hori, K., Takahashi, S., and Inoue, H.
Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.[The effects of inhalation of essential oils on the body weight, food efficiency rate and serum leptin of growing SD rats].Kaddu, S., Kerl, H., and Wolf, P. Accidental bullous phototoxic reactions to bergamot aromatherapy oil.Kawaii, S., Tomono, Y., Katase, E., Ogawa, K., and Yano, M. HL-60 differentiating activity and flavonoid content of the readily extractable fraction prepared from citrus juices.Kawaii, S., Tomono, Y., Katase, E., Ogawa, K., and Yano, M.
Isolation of furocoumarins from bergamot fruits as HL-60 differentiation-inducing compounds.Kejlova, K., Jirova, D., Bendova, H., Kandarova, H., Weidenhoffer, Z., Kolarova, H., and Liebsch, M. Phototoxicity of bergamot oil assessed by in vitro techniques in combination with human patch tests.Kimura, M., Mori, T., Suzuki, H., Endo, S., and Kawano, K. EEG Changes in Odor Effects after the Stress of Long Monotonous Work.Kinley, J. S., Moan, J., Dall'Aqua, F., and Young, A.
R. Quantitative assessment of epidermal melanogenesis in C3H/Tif hr/hr mice treated with topical furocoumarins and UVA radiation.Kravkov, S. W. Light irradiation effect in its dependence upon visual, auditory, and olfactory accessory stimuli.Der Lichtirradiationseffekt im Auge in seiner Abhangigkeit von den Gesichts-, Gehors- und Geruchsnebenreizen.Lake, B.
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N., Witaicenis, A., Pellizzon, C. H., and Di Stasi, L. C. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of coumarin and 4-hydroxycoumarin in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis.Makki, S., Treffel, P., Humbert, P., and Agache, P.
High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of citropten and bergapten in suction blister fluid after solar product application in humans.Mandalari, G., Bennett, R. N., Bisignano, G., Saija, A., Dugo, G., Lo Curto, R. B., Faulds, C.
B., and Waldron, K. W.
Characterization of flavonoids and pectins from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel, a major byproduct of essential oil extraction.Mandalari, G., Bennett, R. N., Kirby, A.
R., Lo Curto, R. B., Bisignano, G., Waldron, K.
W., and Faulds, C. B. Enzymatic hydrolysis of flavonoids and pectic oligosaccharides from bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) peel.Mandalari, G., Nueno, Palop C., Tuohy, K., Gibson, G. R., Bennett, R. N., Waldron, K. W., Bisignano, G., Narbad, A., and Faulds, C.
B.In vitro evaluation of the prebiotic activity of a pectic oligosaccharide-rich extract enzymatically derived from bergamot peel.[Accidents due to tanning cosmetics with a base of bergamot oil].Mollace, V., Ragusa, S., Sacco, I., Muscoli, C., Sculco, F., Visalli, V., Palma, E., Muscoli, S., Mondello, L., Dugo, P., Rotiroti, D., and Romeo, F. The protective effect of bergamot oil extract on lecitine-like oxyLDL receptor-1 expression in balloon injury-related neointima formation.Mollace, V., Sacco, I., Janda, E., Malara, C., Ventrice, D., Colica, C., Visalli, V., Muscoli, S., Ragusa, S., Muscoli, C., Rotiroti, D., and Romeo, F.
Hypolipemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies.Morliere, P., Huppe, G., Averbeck, D., Young, A. R., Santus, R., and Dubertret, L. In vitro photostability and photosensitizing properties of bergamot oil.A., and Lake, B.
G. Comparison of the toxicity of allyl alcohol, coumarin and menadione in precision-cut rat, guinea-pig, cynomolgus monkey and human liver slices.Ramful, D., Bahorun, T., Bourdon, E., Tarnus, E., and Aruoma, O. I.
Bioactive phenolics and antioxidant propensity of flavedo extracts of Mauritian citrus fruits: potential prophylactic ingredients for functional foods application.Ratanasavanh, D., Lamiable, D., Biour, M., Guedes, Y., Gersberg, M., Leutenegger, E., and Riche, C. Metabolism and toxicity of coumarin on cultured human, rat, mouse and rabbit hepatocytes.Romano, L., Battaglia, F., Masucci, L., Sanguinetti, M., Posteraro, B., Plotti, G., Zanetti, S., and Fadda, G.
In vitro activity of bergamot natural essence and furocoumarin-free and distilled extracts, and their associations with boric acid, against clinical yeast isolates.Rombola, L., Corasaniti, M. T., Rotiroti, D., Tassorelli, C., Sakurada, S., Bagetta, G., and Morrone, L.
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A., Corasaniti, M. T., Bagetta, G., and Sakurada, S. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.Sanguinetti, M., Posteraro, B., Romano, L., Battaglia, F., Lopizzo, T., De Carolis, E., and Fadda, G.
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Species-specific differences in coumarin-induced hepatotoxicity as an example toxicogenomics-based approach to assessing risk of toxicity to humans.Urbach, F., Forbes, P. D., Davies, R.
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A study of the phototoxicity of lemon oil. .
The best essential oils for hair growth: Do they work?
While more research is needed, some evidence does exist to suggest that essential oils can help hair to grow healthier and stronger.One study found that bergamot essential oil helps facilitate wound healing and reduce inflammation.The researchers also found that peppermint essential oil increased scalp thickness and the number of hair follicles.They also suggested that peppermint oil may help to promote a more rapid growth stage for hair in the body. .