The following chart shows the oxalate content in 100 grams of selected raw foods:.Produce Oxalic acid (mg) Parsley 1.70 Chives 1.48 Purslane 1.31 Cassava 1.26 Amaranth 1.09 Spinach 0.97 Beet leaves 0.61 Carrot 0.50 Radish 0.48 Collards 0.45 Brussels sprouts 0.36 Beans, snap 0.36 Lettuce 0.33 Watercress 0.31 Sweet potato 0.24 Chicory 0.21 Turnip 0.21 Eggplant 0.19 Celery 0.19 Broccoli 0.19 Cauliflower 0.15 Asparagus 0.13 Endive 0.11 Cabbage 0.10 Okra 0.05 Pea 0.05 Tomato 0.05 Turnip greens 0.05 Pepper 0.04 Kale 0.02 Cucumbers 0.02 Squash 0.02 Coriander (Cilantro) 0.01. .


It is characterised by a small head, large ears, a golden-yellow to buff coat spotted and striped with black, and a short, black-tipped tail.It leaps over 2 m (6 ft 7 in) above the ground to land on the prey on its forefeet, and finally kills it with a bite on the neck or the head.Both sexes establish highly overlapping home ranges of 10 to 32 km2 (4 to 12 sq mi), and mark them with feces and saliva.The serval is a slender, medium-sized cat; it stands 54 to 62 cm (21–24 in) at the shoulder and weighs 8 to 18 kg (18–40 lb), but females tend to be lighter.[22][23] The serval has the longest legs of any cat relative to its body size, largely due to the greatly elongated metatarsal bones in the feet.[24] Facial features include the whitish chin, spots and streaks on the cheeks and the forehead, brownish or greenish eyes, white whiskers on the snout and near the ears, which are black on the back with a white horizontal band in the middle; Three to four black stripes run from the back of the head onto the shoulders, and then break into rows of spots.The serval is similar to the sympatric caracal, but has a narrower spoor, a rounder skull, and lacks its prominent ear tufts.It inhabits grasslands, moorlands and bamboo thickets at high altitudes up to 3,800 m (12,500 ft) on Mount Kilimanjaro.It prefers areas close to water bodies such as wetland and savanna, which provide cover such as reeds and tall grasses.[29] In South Africa, the serval was recorded in Free State, eastern Northern Cape, and southern North West.[32] The serval's white spots on the backs of its ears are thought to play an important role in communication.A solitary animal, there is little social interaction among servals except in the mating season, when pairs of opposite sexes may stay together.Aggressive encounters are rare, as servals appear to mutually avoid one another rather than fight and defend their ranges.On occasions where two adult servals meet in conflict over territory, a ritualistic display may ensue, in which one will place a paw on the other’s chest while observing their rival closely; this interaction rarely escalates into a fight.Individuals mark their ranges and preferred paths by spraying urine on nearby vegetation, dropping scats along the way, and rubbing their mouth on grasses or the ground while releasing saliva.It will seek cover to escape their view, and, if the predator is very close, immediately flee in long leaps, changing its direction frequently and with the tail raised.[20] The serval is an efficient, though not frequent, climber; an individual was observed to have climbed a tree to a height of more than 9 metres (30 feet) to escape dogs.The serval is a carnivore that preys on rodents, particularly vlei rats, small birds, frogs, insects and reptiles, and also feeds on grass that can facilitate digestion or act as an emetic.It remains motionless for up to 15 minutes; when prey is within range, it jumps with all four feet up to 4 m (13 ft) in the air and attacks with its front paws.[37] To kill small prey, it slowly stalks it, then pounce on it with the forefeet directed toward the chest, and finally lands on it with its forelegs outstretched.Servals have been observed caching large kills to be consumed later by concealing them in dead leaves and grasses.Servals typically get rid of the internal organs of rodents while eating, and pluck feathers from birds before consuming them.[39] Observations of captive servals suggest that when a female enters oestrus, the rate of urine-marking increases in her as well as the males in her vicinity.Zoologist Jonathan Kingdon described the behaviour of a female serval in oestrus in his 1997 book East African Mammals.He noted that she would roam restlessly, spray urine frequently holding her vibrating tail in a vertical manner, rub her head near the place she has marked, salivate continuously, give out sharp and short "miaow"s that can be heard for quite a distance, and rub her mouth and cheeks against the face of an approaching male.The time when mating takes place varies geographically; births peak in winter in Botswana, and toward the end of the dry season in the Ngorongoro Crater.A trend generally observed across the range is that births precede the breeding season of murid rodents.Births take place in secluded areas, for example in dense vegetation or burrows abandoned by aardvarks and porcupines.Blind at birth, newborn weigh nearly 250 g (9 oz) and have soft, woolly hair (greyer than in adults) and unclear markings.Weaning begins a month after birth; the mother brings small kills to her kittens and calls out to them as she approaches the "den".Hunting of servals is prohibited in Algeria, Botswana, Congo, Kenya, Liberia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tunisia and South Africa's Cape Province; hunting regulations apply in Angola, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Malawi, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia. .

Safe food and plants list for parrots

Tables of contents: What indoor plants can parrots eat?| What outdoor plants can parrots eat?| Other fruits, salad vegetables and herbs.Get a quote for up to £5,000 of vet fee cover, death and theft cover | We've been insuring exotic pets since 1996 | Check out our customer reviews on Feefo.Knowing what plants, fruit and vegetables are safe for your parrot can be difficult.You should remember that if the plants, vegetables or fruits have been sprayed with pesticides, then they may make your parrot poorly.Make sure you wash them before giving them to your bird.What indoor plants can parrots eat?For more in depth advice and guidance on feeding your parrot, try reading: What your parrot can eat, diet and food ideas.What outdoor plants can parrots eat?Balsam, (Douglas, Subalpine or White Fir).Plants can make great toys and hideouts.Find out how in: 10 ideas for homemade parrot toys.Watermelon Banana Passion fruit.Butternut Peaches Cape Gooseberries Pear.Cantaloupe Pomegranate Citrus Fruits.Parrot eating corn on the cob. .

Gopher Tortoise Dung Researcher Amanda Hipps

I’m a master’s student at Florida Atlantic University studying the animals that depend on gopher tortoise burrows, called commensals.Some species of insects feed only on gopher tortoise dung (yeah, they might eat poop, but they’re picky about what kind).These insects are providing dung removal services in the burrows, potentially benefiting tortoises by reducing pest flies and parasite loads.While at a field site, I use a camera scope to see if any vertebrate commensals, like snakes or frogs, are hiding in the burrow.As an undergraduate student at the University of North Florida, I was preparing to apply to vet school and was doing an internship at the Jacksonville Zoo animal hospital.A lot of my time there was spent rehabbing native wildlife and gopher tortoise car strikes seemed to be the most common issue the hospital staff dealt with.This is where I was first introduced to them, but after working with them in a hospital setting, I was interested in getting to know them from an ecological perspective, so I began undergraduate research at my university with Dr. Joe Butler.Few studies in southeast Florida have surveyed for commensal animals and potentially this area may house a number of previously undescribed species.Saving the species will require cooperation from many people including government officials, private landowners, ranchers, and developers.


Larrea tridentata

Introductory SPECIES: Larrea tridentata AUTHORSHIP AND CITATION: Marshall, K. Anna.U.S.

Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory (Producer).[110] NRCS PLANT CODE: LATR2 COMMON NAMES: creosote bush greasewood TAXONOMY: The scientific name of creosote bush is Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cov.ECOSYSTEMS: FRES30 Desert shrub FRES32 Texas savanna FRES33 Southwestern shrubsteppe FRES40 Desert grasslands STATES: AZ CA NV NM TX UT MEXICO BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS: 3 Southern Pacific Border 6 Upper Basin and Range 7 Lower Basin and Range 12 Colorado Plateau 13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont KUCHLER PLANT ASSOCIATIONS: K041 Creosote bush K042 Creosote bush - bursage K043 Paloverde - cactus shrub K044 Creosote bush - tarbush K045 Ceniza shrub K058 Grama - tobosa shrubsteppe K059 Trans-Pecos shrub savanna SAF COVER TYPES: 68 Mesquite 242 Mesquite SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES: NO-ENTRY HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES: Creosote bush is a dominant or codominant member of most plant communities in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan deserts.Creosote bush usually occurs in open, species-poor communities, sometimes in pure stands.woodlands [90], Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia)/big galleta (Hilaria rigida) communities [57], and xeroriparian areas [14].The creosote bush-burrobush (Ambrosia dumosa) association covers approximately 70 percent of the Mojave Desert [42,67,91].Ackerman [3] estimated the density of creosote bush at 959 plants per hectare on Mojave Desert sites in Rock Valley, Nevada.Species associated with creosote bush-burrobush communities in the Mojave Desert include Shockley's goldenhead (Acamptopappus shockleyi), Anderson's wolfberry (Lycium andersonii), range ratany (Krameria parvifolia), Mojave yucca (Yucca schidigera), California jointfir (Ephedra funerea), spiny hopsage (Grayia spinosa), and winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) [88].Creosote bush also occurs in the Mojave Desert scrub association with desertholly (Atriplex hymenelytra), shadscale (A. confertifolia), white burrobrush (Hymenoclea salsola), blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima), Joshua tree, desertsenna (Cassia armata), and Nevada ephedra (Ephedra nevadensis) [54,97].Other species associated with creosote bush in the Sonoran Desert include yellow paloverde (Cercidium microphyllum), tesota (Olneya tesota), big galleta, prickly pear (Opuntia spp.The creosote bush scrub phase covers 40 percent of the Chihuahuan Desert [67].Creosote bush also occurs in the sand dune scrub phase in the Chihuahuan Desert [49].Publications listing creosote bush as a dominant or codominant species include: The structure and distribution of Larrea communities [9] Sonoran Desert [24] Vegetation and community types of the Chihuahuan Desert [49] Preliminary descriptions of the terrestrial natural communities of California [54] The natural vegetation of Arizona [81] Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics [82] Plant communities of Texas (Series level) [94] Vegetation and flora of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Arizona [103].MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS SPECIES: Larrea tridentata IMPORTANCE TO LIVESTOCK AND WILDLIFE: Many animals bed in or under creosote bush.Domestic sheep dig shallow beds under creosote bush because it provides the only shade in the desert scrub community [105].Desert reptiles and amphibians use creosote bush as a food source and perch site and hibernate or estivate in burrows under creosote bush, avoiding predators and excessive daytime temperatures.Desert tortoises dig their shelters under creosote bush where its roots stabilize the soil [12,30].Seventy-one percent of desert tortoise burrows studied near San Bernardino, California, were associated with creosote bush [12].Merriam's kangaroo rats often make their dens under creosote bush [76].Some special status subspecies of kit fox rest and den in creosote bush flats in the Sonoran Desert [111].Many small mammals browse creosote bush or consume its seeds.Creosote bush comprised 14.6 percent of black-tailed jackrabbit diets on Isla Carmen in the Gulf of California.Terminal twigs of creosote bush were consumed in proportion to their availability in black-tailed jackrabbit habitat.Boyd and Brum [19] found that 27.5 percent of creosote bush seed mericarps on a Mojave Desert site showed signs of postdispersal rodent predation.PALATABILITY: Creosote bush is unpalatable to livestock and most browsing wildlife [8,55,70,95].A few researchers have treated creosote bush chemically to make it palatable [95,36,4].NUTRITIONAL VALUE: Catlin [27] evaluated the nutritional content of creosote bush browse in Arizona: Water 4.79% Ash 8.06% Crude protein 13.37% Crude fiber 11.21% Fat 9.13% Nitrogen-free extract 43.38% Reichman [86] estimated that creosote bush seeds contain 4,966 calories per gram or 11.37 calories per seed.Once established, creosote bush may improve sites for annuals that grow under its canopy by trapping fine soil, organic matter, and symbiont propagules.Miller and Holden [75] increased germination success by leaching seeds in running water for 12 hours.At Organ Pipe National Monument, the survival rate for creosote bush was 78 percent when seeds were germinated in grow tubes filled with nursery soil mix and allowed to harden-off before being transplanted outside.Bainbridge and Virginia [8] recommend pruning seedlings heavily 1 month before transplanting.Twigs and leaves may be boiled as tea, steamed, pounded into a powder, pressed into a poultice, or heated into an infusion.Lac is plastic when heated but hardens again on cooling, forming a strong bond like commercial sealing wax.Lac has been used by desert peoples to seal lids on food jars [39,80].Creosote bush contains phototoxins in its leaves that inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures [35].OTHER MANAGEMENT CONSIDERATIONS: Creosote bush invades desert grasslands [6,17,22,56,58].In 1904, creosote bush was confined to about 950 acres (380 ha) at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in Arizona [56].By 1954, creosote bush occupied an area 73 times as great as it had 50 years before.Humphrey and Mehrhoff [56] attribute creosote bush expansion to a reduction in range fires.Buffington and Herbel [22] cite heavy grazing and periodic droughts as the major causes of the rapid increase of creosote bush and other shrubs in desert grasslands.Controlling creosote bush can be difficult because it can sprout from the root crown following disturbance [16].Creosote bush is susceptible to severe drought during short-term climate changes like El Nino [102].During dry years, creosote bush undergoes severe moisture stress and subsequent defoliation.The cumulative result of El Nino can be a 60-80 percent stem dieback.Dead stemwood remains standing within the shrub biomass for several years.Pollution from electric power generating facilities may adversely affect creosote bush.BOTANICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS SPECIES: Larrea tridentata GENERAL BOTANICAL CHARACTERISTICS: Creosote bush is a native, drought-tolerant, evergreen shrub growing up to 13.2 feet (4 m) tall [79].Because of leaf and stem alignment, creosote bush provides little shade during the full desert sunshine [70].The leaves of creosote bush are thick, resinous, and strongly scented [8,61] .Fruits are globose, consisting of five united, indehiscent, one-seeded carpels which may or may not break apart after maturing [13,68,79].The taproot extends to a depth of about 32 inches (80 cm); further penetration is usually inhibited by caliche [41,114].Barbour [10] found that root growth decreased as pH increased above 8.0.Root growth was inhibited by high concentrations of salt (>10,000 ppm).Creosote bush roots require relatively large amounts of oxygen for growth [66].The age of the largest clone in Johnson Valley, California, is estimated at 9,400 years [101].RAUNKIAER LIFE FORM: Phanerophyte REGENERATION PROCESSES: Creosote bush reproduces both vegetatively and sexually.Vegetative reproduction: Creosote bush achieves its status as one of the most stable members of desert communities by cloning.When drought is extreme, old branches and roots of creosote bush die back.When rains return, branches are replaced by sprouts originating near the outside of the root crown.Creosote bush clones gradually expand to form rings many meters in diameter [32,63].Creosote bush may occasionally sprout from its root crown after disturbance.New sprouts were produced by creosote bush on a Mojave Desert site that had been denuded by grading [89].Sexual reproduction: Age distribution in many stands of creosote bush indicates that germination and survival under natural conditions are rare [11,66].Sexual reproduction may be especially rare at the upper elevational limits of creosote bush [104].Creosote bush requires summer rains for successful sexual reproduction.The flowering success of creosote bush is greatest with moderate rainfall.Creosote bush seeds are primarily adapted for tumbling rather than for animal dispersal or lofting [68].The stiff trichomes radiate equally in all directions so that little wind is required to send the seeds tumbling.The trichomes are not stiff enough to penetrate animal skin, and the seeds are too heavy for lofting.Shreve [91] noted poor creosote bush reproduction on level plains.Leitner [116] found creosote bush more abundant on southern or northern slopes of a pediment in Sonora, Mexico, than in washes.Rock crevices and irregularities of the pediment may provide protection and footholds for wind-tumbled seeds.Germination experiments have been conducted on creosote bush seeds from all three southwestern deserts.Barbour [10] found that the average creosote bush mericarp contained one seed, and viability ranged from 15 to 76 percent.Creosote bush seeds may lose viability if they remain in topsoils during the summer; seeds from the Sonoran and Chihuahuan deserts showed decreased germination as storage temperature increased.SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Creosote bush commonly grows on bajadas, gentle slopes, valley floors, sand dunes, and in arroyos [23,34,107] at elevations up to 5,000 feet (1,515 m) [61,79] throughout the Sonoran, Mojave, and Chihuahuan deserts.It occurs on calcareous, sandy, and alluvial soils that are often underlain by a caliche hardpan [21,43,45,48,67].Daytime temperatures in the summer often reach 117 degrees Fahrenheit (47 deg C) [26].In Rock Valley, Nevada, near the northern boundary of creosote bush distribution, temperatures range from 5 degrees Fahrenheit (-15 deg C) in winter to 117 degrees Fahrenheit (47 deg C) in summer [3].In the Sonoran Desert, annual rainfall averages 4 to 12 inches (100-300 mm) and is distributed bimodally [67].The Mojave Desert gets more winter than summer rain [67]; in Rock Valley, Nevada, rainfall averages 5.524 inches (138.1 mm), with 60 percent falling between September and February [18].The Chihuahuan Desert is slightly less dry; in the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico, rainfall averages from 8.5 inches at San Marcial to slightly more than 10 inches at Socorro.Low soil oxygen may be a controlling factor in the distribution of desert species.Creosote bush is less tolerant of low soil oxygen than burrobush [46].Lunt [66] attributes the exclusion of creosote bush from fine-textured and poorly drained soils to its high oxygen requirement.SUCCESSIONAL STATUS: Creosote bush density and cover are generally decreased by disturbance.Webb [104] noted that desert succession can be described using life-history strategies: Species with high recruitment and mortality rates, such as white bursage, are dominant in the colonizing stage and species with low recruitment and mortality, such as creosote bush, eventually dominate the landscape, although colonizing species usually remain present.McAuliffe [71] found that 85.5 percent of all young creosote bush were rooted beneath the canopies of live burrobush or positioned next to dead ones.The smallest creosote bush plants in McAuliffe's [71] study were all associated with live burrobush.Most creosote bush establishment apparently occurs near live burrobush.Total densities of young creosote bush were between 12 and 15 plants per hectare.The density of burrobush plants was ten times that of creosote bush.Creosote bush canopies may grow to exceed the coverage of burrobush by more than six times [71].Mature creosote bush may be allelopathic to their own seedlings, encouraging an open community structure [71].SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT: Creosote bush leafs out in response to spring, summer, or fall rains [1].Creosote bush seeds germinate after rains from mid-June to mid-September in the Mojave Desert [2].Creosote bush survives some fires that burn patchily or are of low severity [87,115].Historically, infrequent fires may have limited the invasion of desert grasslands by creosote bush [59].Humphrey [59] stated that the creosote bush-burrobush community is "essentially nonflammable" because the shrubs are too sparse to carry fire.POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY: Secondary colonizer - off-site seed Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown FIRE REGIMES: Find fire regime information for the plant communities in which this species may occur by entering the species name in the FEIS home page under "Find Fire Regimes".During a low-severity California fire, many creosote bush were scorched and few burned, but overall mortality was still 97 percent [115].Dalton [33] reported mortality rates of 69 and 63 percent for moderately and lightly burned plants, respectively.In a southern California brushfire, creosote bush successfully sprouted and regained its estimated former cover within 5 years [83].However, Brown and Minnich [115] reported that creosote bush rarely sprouted even though most shrubs were incompletely burned in a low-severity fire near Palm Springs, California.Dalton [33] reported good creosote bush seedling establishment on a burned site in Arizona, possibly due to reduced competition for soil moisture.DISCUSSION AND QUALIFICATION OF PLANT RESPONSE: Season of burning, fuel quantity, fire temperature, and age of existing creosote bush may affect the ability of creosote bush to sprout.White [108] noted that burning creosote bush during different seasons at the Sant Rita Experimental Range near Tucson, Arizona, resulted in significant differences in sprout production.The seasonal pattern of sprout production closely followed trends in growth of terminal shoots.The Research Project Summary Nonnative annual grass fuels and fire in California's Mojave Desert provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species, including creosote bush, that was not available when this species review was written.Prescribed burning should be conducted in spring or early fall following 2 years of above average plant growth.Britton and Wright [20] describe specific procedures for burning shrub-invaded grasslands.The hydrophobic characteristic of such soils precludes the establishment of annuals normally occurring under creosote bush.Standing biomass, deadwood, and leaf litter from creosote bush can fuel desert fires.The shoot volume, dry weight, and biomass production of creosote bush all increase in sigmoid fashion with age.Woody remains of creosote bush take about 60 years to decay beyond the point of recognition [71].Phenology of desert shrubs in southern Nye County, Nevada.Germination and survival of perennial plant species in the Mojave Desert.Phenological studies in the Mojave Desert at Rock Valley (Nevada Test Site).A study of the possibilities of treating creosotebush with NaOH to make a good livestock feed.Water-repellent soils, fire, and annual plant cover in a desert scrub community of southeastern California.Preliminary report on the ecology of fire study, Guadalupe Mountains and Carlsbad Caverns National Parks.Biological investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park: Proceedings of a symposium; 1975 April 4-5; Lubbock, TX.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 31-44.Desert mule deer and forage resources in southwest Arizona.Creosote bush: Biology and chemistry of Larrea in New World deserts.Age and space distribution of the desert shrub Larrea divaricata.Spatial distribution of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at Twentynine Palms, California: implications for relocations.In: Szaro, Robert C.; Severson, Kieth E.; Patton, David R., technical coordinators.Management of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in North America: Proceedings of the symposium; 1988 July 19-21; Flagstaff, AZ.Effects of rainfall and temperature on the distribution and behavior of Larrea tridentata (creosote-bush) in the Mojave Desert of Nevada.Protection, management, and restoration for the 1990's: Proceedings of the California riparian systems conference; 1988 September 22-24; Davis, CA.Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W.Proceedings--brush management symposium; 1983 February 16; Albuquerque, NM.Blydenstein, John; Hungerford, C.

Roger; Day, Gerald I.; Humphrey, R. 1957.Effect of domestic livestock exclusion on vegetation in the Sonoran Desert.Predispersal reproductive attrition in a Mojave Desert population of Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae).Proceedings--brush management symposium; 1983 February 16; Albuquerque, NM.Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico.Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico; 1974 October 17-18; Alpine, TX.Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 229-242.In: Proceedings, annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference; 1972 June 8-9; Lubbock, TX.Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 155-171.Energy relationships of the mammals of a desert shrub (Larrea tridentata) community.Proceedings of the native plant revegetation symposium; 1984 November 15; San Diego, CA.San Diego, CA: California Native Plant Society: 42-47.Spacing patterns in Mojave Desert plant communities: near-neighbor analyses.Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 311-364.Downum, Kelsey R.; Villegas, Sergio; Rodriguez, Eloy; Keil, David J.Development of a feed from the creosote bush and the determination of its nutritive value.Flores, Ernesto; Conoly, Marty; Sosebee, Ronald E.; Hartmann, Steve.Research highlights: Noxious brush and weed control; range and wildlife management.Lubbock, TX: Texas Tech University, College of Agricultural Sciences: 10.Vegetation of the creosotebush area of the Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico.Vegetation change and plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert.Survey of floodplain vegetation along the lower Gila River in southwestern Arizona.Control of mesquite, creosote bush, and tarbush on arid rangelands of the southwestern United States.In: Proceedings, 11th international grasslands congress; [Date of conference unknown]; Queensland, Australia.On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Lab, Missoula, MT.Feeding ecology of an insular population of the black-tailed jackrabbit (Lepus californicus) in the Gulf of California.Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station.Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station.Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station.Brief resume of botanical, including vegetational, features of the Chihuahuan Desert region with special emphasis on their uniqueness.Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico; 1974 October 17-18; Alpine, TX.Washington, DC: U.S.

Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 335-359.Manual to accompany the map of potential vegetation of the conterminous United States.Propagation, revegetation program underway Organ Pipe National Monument.Oxygen requirements for root growth in three species of desert shrubs.Wind dispersal in Californian desert plants: experimental studies and conceptual considerations.Markovian dynamics of simple and complex desert plant communities.Proceedings of symposium: "Seed and seedbed ecology of rangeland plants"; 1987 April 21-23; Tucson, AZ.A reconnaissance survey of pollen rain in Big Bend National Park, Texas: modern control for a paleoenvironmental study.Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico; 1974 October 17-18; Alpine, TX.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service: 115-123.Proceedings, Western Forest Nursery Association; 1992 September 14-18; Fallen Leaf Lake, CA.Creosotebush control and forage production in the Chihuahuan and Sonoran Deserts.Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona, Agricultural Experiment Station: 189-230.Vegetation of the Santa Catalina Mountains: community types and dynamics.Postfire recovery of creosote bush scrub vegetation in the western Colorado Desert.Effects of substrate disturbance on secondary plant succession; Mojave Desert, California.Relationships between dimensions, weights, volumes, and calories of some Sonoran Desert seeds.Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ.Pulse establishment of woody shrubs of denuded Mojave Desert land.In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E.

Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R., compilers.Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT.Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 54-57.Biomass and net primary production of Prosopis glandulosa (Fabaceae) in the Sonoran Desert of California.Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files.Creosote bush: Biology and chemistry of Larrea in New World deserts.Biotic communities of the American Southwest--United States and Mexico.U.S.

Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (Producer).Davis, CA: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Survey.Early successional stages in Mojave Desert scrub vegetation.Wildland shrub dieoffs following excessively wet periods: a synthesis.In: McArthur, E. Durant; Romney, Evan M.; Smith, Stanley D.; Tueller, Paul T., compilers.Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 81-83.Vegetation and flora of Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Arizona.The response of vegetation to disturbance in Death Valley National Monument, California.Sheep grazing effects on Mojave Desert vegetation and soils.Development of plants in the Death Valley National Monument, California.Factors affecting susceptibility of creosotebush (Larrea tridentata (D.C.) Cov.).Prescribed range burning in the coastal prairie and eastern Rio Grande Plains of Texas: Proceedings of a symposium; 1980 October 16; Kingsville, TX.Creosote bush: Biology and chemistry of Larrea in New World deserts.Habitat use and movements of desert kit foxes in western Arizona.The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming.Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service.Cover, biomass, and root-shoot habit of Larrea divaricata on a selected site in southern New Mexico.Fire and changes in creosote bush scrub of the western Sonoran Desert, California.Plant communities of a large arroyo at Punta Cirio, Sonora.In: Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America. .

gopher tortoise eating grass

When he's not making science content, he races whitewater kayaks and works on Stone Age Man. .

How Do You Use Ivermectin Paste On Horses?

In onchocerciasis the worm infection mainly affects the skin, glands (lymph nodes) and eyes.In the form of strongyloidiasis that is treated with Stromectol, the worm infection mainly affects the intestines and skin.Symptoms which may occur include itchy rash, vomiting, diarrhoea and stomach pain.Oral hydration, recumbency, intravenous normal saline, and/or parenteral corticosteroids have been used to treat postural hypotension.In these patients, the following adverse experiences have also been reported: pain (including neck and back pain), red eye, conjunctival hemorrhage, dyspnea, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, difficulty in standing/walking, mental status changes, confusion, lethargy, stupor, seizures, or coma.In individuals who warrant treatment with ivermectin for any reason and have had significant exposure to Loa loa-endemic areas of West or Central Africa, pretreatment assessment for loiasis and careful post-treatment follow-up should be implemented.At these doses, the treatment-related signs that were observed in these animals include ataxia, bradypnea, tremors, ptosis, decreased activity, emesis, and mydriasis.In accidental intoxication with, or significant exposure to, unknown quantities of veterinary formulations of ivermectin in humans, either by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or exposure to body surfaces, the following adverse effects have been reported most frequently: rash, edema, headache, dizziness, asthenia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.Other adverse effects that have been reported include: seizure, ataxia, dyspnea, abdominal pain, paresthesia, urticaria, and contact dermatitis.In case of accidental poisoning, supportive therapy, if indicated, should include parenteral fluids and electrolytes, respiratory support (oxygen and mechanical ventilation if necessary) and pressor agents if clinically significant hypotension is present.Induction of emesis and/or gastric lavage as soon as possible, followed by purgatives and other routine anti-poison measures, may be indicated if needed to prevent absorption of ingested material.Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.confusion, change in your mental status, balance problems, trouble walking;. .

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