Variously sliced, diced, chopped, and sautéed, the fat fennel stem (which tastes attractively of licorice) is yummy in a wide range of recipes, from salad to ceviche.In the ancient world, a variety of giant fennel known as silphium made a fortune for Cyrene, a Greek colony in North Africa, now Libya.Cyrenian silphium was a popular ingredient in Roman recipes—Apicius in De Re Coquinaria recommends serving it with boiled melon— but its real desirability seems to have stemmed from its effectiveness as a contraceptive.John Riddle, author of Eve’s Herbs, a history of contraceptives, argues that fennel-supported family planning may be the reason that the Roman population either stayed steady or decreased, even in periods of peace and prosperity, eras usually conducive to babies.A feeble replacement for lost silphium was asafoedita, another fennel relative, native to the eastern Mediterranean, Afghanistan, and Iran, and similarly used as a contraceptive.Generations of unhappy schoolchildren were made to wear asafoetida bags around their necks to ward off everything from polio to measles, whooping cough, and the common cold. .

In Ancient Times, Flowers and Fennel For Family Planning

But, he added, "I sit here as a professor of pharmacology teaching about modern drugs to medical students.".Dr. Estes said he studied medicines used in the 18th century to cure a variety of illnesses and found that most are ineffective.He said that he wondered why patients kept using medicines that did not work and that he reasoned that in most cases, people get better on their own no matter what they take, if they are healthy to begin with."There are a lot of substances, like pennyroyal, that are well known and used by poor women in parts of Kentucky and other states," Dr.

Estes said. .

Foods to avoid in pregnancy

pasteurised or unpasteurised mould-ripened soft cheeses with a white coating on the outside, such as Brie, Camembert and chèvre (unless cooked until steaming hot).There's a small chance that unpasteurised or soft ripened dairy products may contain Listeria bacteria.Cooking cheese until it's steaming hot kills bacteria, reducing the risk of listeriosis. .

Fennel: health benefits, recipes, forms, nutrition and more

A 2020 systematic review found that digesting these seeds may also stimulate prolactin to help mothers naturally produce breast milk.Fennel tea may aid digestion and other gastrointestinal issues such as heartburn, bloating, loss of appetite, and colic in infants.The vitamin and mineral content in fennel contributes to building and maintaining bone structure and strength in the following ways:.Insufficient potassium intake can increase a person’s risk of developing high blood pressure.When excessive amounts of homocysteine build up, it can damage blood vessels and lead to heart problems.Fiber intake from fruits and vegetables like fennel is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.The selenium found in fennel appears to stimulate the production of killer T-cells and modulates the immune system in other ways.Studies have shown dietary intake of selenium can improve immune response, especially to viral agents.Fennel is a source of vitamin B-6, which plays a vital role in energy metabolism by breaking down carbohydrates and proteins into glucose and amino acids.The fiber content in fennel helps to prevent constipation and promotes regularity for a healthy digestive tract.Dietary fiber is an important factor in weight management and works as a “bulking agent” in the digestive system.These compounds increase satiety and reduce appetite, making an individual feel fuller for longer and lowering overall calorie intake.A 2020 study found that consumption of fennel seed powder reduced menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women over 8 weeks . .

FENNEL: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions

Abramson, C. I., Wanderley, P.

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C., and Michaluk, L. M. The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae).Agarwal, R., Gupta, S.

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Oculohypotensive effects of foeniculum vulgare in experimental models of glaucoma.B. and Shishodia, S.

Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.B. and Shishodia, S.

Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning.B., Harikumar, K. B., Tharakan, S. T., Sung, B., and Anand, P.

Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention.Alexandrovich, I., Rakovitskaya, O., Kolmo, E., Sidorova, T., and Shushunov, S. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.Bub, S., Brinckmann, J., Cicconetti, G., and Valentine, B. Efficacy of an herbal dietary supplement (Smooth Move) in the management of constipation in nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Activity against drug resistant-tuberculosis strains of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases.Choi, E. M. and Hwang, J. K.

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.dulce (sweet fennel), Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) and Mentha x piperita (peppermint).Gutierrez, J., Rodriguez, G., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening.Hotta, M., Nakata, R., Katsukawa, M., Hori, K., Takahashi, S., and Inoue, H.

Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.Javidnia, K., Dastgheib, L., Mohammadi, Samani S., and Nasiri, A. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract.Joshi, H. and Parle, M. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.Lee, H. S. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp.Modaress, Nejad, V and Asadipour, M.

Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea.Murone, A. J., Stucki, P., Roback, M. G., and Gehri, M. Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.Namavar, Jahromi B., Tartifizadeh, A., and Khabnadideh, S.

Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp.Picon, P. D., Picon, R. V., Costa, A. F., Sander, G.

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Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation.Platel K and Srinivasan K. A Study of the digestive stimulant action of select spices in experimental rats.Schone, F., Vetter, A., Hartung, H., Bergmann, H., Biertumpfel, A., Richter, G., Muller, S., and Breitschuh, G. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs.Singh, B. and Kale, R. K. Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.Subehan, Usia, T., Iwata, H., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y.

Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 by Indonesian medicinal plants.Subehan, Zaidi, S. F., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y.

Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.Tognolini, M., Ballabeni, V., Bertoni, S., Bruni, R., Impicciatore, M., and Barocelli, E. Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis.Tognolini, M., Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Bruni, R., Bianchi, A., Chiavarini, M., and Impicciatore, M.

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.Vasudevan, K., Vembar, S., Veeraraghavan, K., and Haranath, P. S. Influence of intragastric perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats.Wright, C.

I., Van Buren, L., Kroner, C. I., and Koning, M. M.

Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.Zahrani SH, Amjady MA, Mojab F, and et al. Clinical effects of foeniculum vulgare extract on systemic symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea in students of Shaheed Beheshti University in Tehran [Farsi].Zeller, A., Horst, K., and Rychlik, M. Study of the metabolism of estragole in humans consuming fennel tea.Zidorn, C., Johrer, K., Ganzera, M., Schubert, B., Sigmund, E. M., Mader, J., Greil, R., Ellmerer, E. P., and Stuppner, H. Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities.Abedi P, Najafian M, Yaralizadeh M, Namjoyan F.

Effect of fennel vaginal cream on sexual function in postmenopausal women: A double blind randomized controlled trial.Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.Bae J, Kim J, Choue R, Lim H. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) tea drinking suppresses subjective short-term appetite in overweight women.Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T.

Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem.Chakurski I, Matev M, Koichev A, et al. [Treatment of chronic colitis with an herbal combination of Taraxacum officinale, Hipericum perforatum, Melissa officinaliss, Calendula officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare].Falahat F, Ayatiafin S, Jarahi L, et al. Efficacy of a herbal formulation based on Foeniculum vulgare in oligo/amenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial.The effect of fennel seed powder on estradiol levels, menopausal symptoms, and sexual desire in postmenopausal women.Gral N, Beani JC, Bonnot D, et al. [Plasma levels of psoralens after celery ingestion].Lee HW, Ang L, Lee MS, Alimoradi Z, Kim E. Fennel for reducing pain in primary dysmenorrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Mahdavian M, Mirzaii Najmabadi K, Hosseinzadeh H, Mirzaeian S, Badiee Aval S, Esmaeeli H. Effect of the mixed herbal medicines extract (fennel, chamomile, and saffron) on menopause syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.Nadjarzadeh A, Ghadiri-Anari A, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, et al.

Effect of hypocaloric high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with fennel on androgenic and anthropometric indices in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.The effect of fennel essential oil on uterine contraction as a model for dysmenorrhea, pharmacology and toxicology study.Pitasawat B, Champakaew D, Choochote W, et al. Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.Portincasa P, Bonfrate L, Scribano ML, et al. Curcumin and fennel essential oil improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.(fennel) on menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, et al. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants.Trabace L, Tucci P, Ciuffreda L, et al.

"Natural" relief of pregnancy-related symptoms and neonatal outcomes: above all do no harm.Weizman Z, Alkrinawi S, Goldfarb D, et al. Efficacy of herbal tea preparation in infantile colic.Effect of oral administration of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on ciprofloxacin absorption and disposition in the rat. .

Pregnancy Heartburn Remedies

Instead of taking over the counter medicine, try drinking coconut water for immediate and easy pregnancy heartburn relief.Almonds offer many health benefits during pregnancy, including protein and calcium.In addition, almonds neutralize stomach acid, reducing symptoms of heartburn.You can either eat the fruit by itself if it’s ripe, or you can take chewable papaya enzyme that you can purchase at a health store. .

Fennel Tea: Benefits, Health Information, and Side Effects

Fennel has long been thought to strengthen your eyesight, regulate hormones, improve your digestion, and help memory.If you feel a cold coming on, drinking some fennel tea can help your body fight back against the pathogens attacking your immune system.It can help you sleep A serving of hot tea is a great way to unwind after a long day, and putting fennel in the brew gives you an extra health boost.It can aid breast milk production Fennel has been used for centuries as a galactagogue — a substance to increase the quality and quantity of breastmilk in breastfeeding moms.This lessens the load on your kidney and liver, helps new cell production, and even reduces the signs of aging.It can relieve constipation Fennel tea relaxes your digestive muscles, which might be just what you need if you’re struggling with regular bowel movements.The estrogen that is activated in the oil of the fennel seed could confuse your pregnant body, which is already experiencing a surge in all kinds of hormones. .

Eating Fennel Seeds (Saunf) in Pregnancy: Benefits & Side Effects

You may be experiencing the wonderful changes that pregnancy puts your body through – while also going through several discomforts, which are also part of the package.Fennel seeds are aromatic and flavoured herbs which look brown or green when fresh and turn dull grey when they age.It has been proven to be beneficial for tooth pain and gum issues, apart from having several other health benefits such as aiding digestion.Your doctor can help you understand how much you should be consuming basis your health requirements and conditions.Most pregnant women complain of loss of appetite due to indigestion and gas.Fennel seeds are a natural carminative and help in eliminating gas from the intestinal tract.This ultimately helps in better digestion and issues related to the gut are taken care of, the appetite returns too.Fennel seeds affect the ability of your blood to coagulate, making the process of clotting slow.The antispasmodic, phytoestrogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties in fennel are found to stimulate the uterus, leading to premature contractions.It is always advisable to check with your doctor or dietician before you include fennel seeds in your pregnancy diet.The chief ingredients for making the tea are water, crushed fennel seeds, jaggery syrup or honey.Then, slowly strain the brewed tea and mix honey or jaggery in it, according to your taste.But it is important to remember that fennel seeds could trigger the menstrual cycle and lead to vaginal bleeding, ultimately causing a miscarriage.Now that you know both the benefits and side effects of having fennel seeds, check whether they are suitable for consumption while you’re pregnant. .

6 Unique Teas That Help Treat Nausea

This root has been used as a natural remedy for nausea for thousands of years and is commonly added to candies, tablets, and chews used to settle upset stomachs ( 1 ).A review of nine studies reported that ginger relieved nausea and vomiting caused by morning sickness, chemotherapy, certain medications, and surgery ( 2 ).Similarly, a study in 576 people undergoing chemotherapy found that eating 0.5–1 gram(s) of ginger significantly reduced the severity of nausea, compared with a placebo ( 3 ).In traditional medicine, chamomile has been used to relax your digestive muscles and treat conditions like motion sickness, nausea, vomiting, gas, and indigestion ( 4 ).According to a 4-month study in 65 women undergoing chemotherapy, taking 500 mg of chamomile extract twice daily reduced the frequency of vomiting ( 5 ).Meanwhile, a study in 105 women noted that taking chamomile extract was more effective than ginger at reducing nausea and vomiting caused by pregnancy ( 6 ).To make it, steep 1 tablespoon (2 grams) of dried chamomile in 1 cup (240 ml) of hot water for 5–10 minutes.For instance, a 4-day study in 100 pregnant women showed that smelling lemon essential oil led to significant reductions in nausea and vomiting ( 8 ).For example, one study in 80 women found that taking a capsule with 30 mg of fennel before menstruation helped reduce symptoms like nausea and weakness ( 11 ).What’s more, a study in 159 people determined that drinking 1 cup (240 ml) of fennel tea per day helped promote digestive health, gut recovery, and bowel regularity after surgery ( 12 ).Summary Studies show that fennel tea may help improve digestive health and relieve symptoms like stomach pain and nausea.Alternatively, you can make your own by steeping 10–15 crushed peppermint leaves in 1 cup (240 ml) of hot water for 10–15 minutes.In addition to being added to candies, chewing gum, and beverages, it has long been used in traditional medicine to treat digestive distress ( 15 ).One monthlong study in 54 people found that taking 75 mg of licorice extract twice daily reduced symptoms of indigestion, including nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, and bloating ( 16 ). .

fennel – Health Information Library

Fennel has been used in alternative medicine as a possibly effective aid in treating colic (intestinal gas) in babies who are breast-fed.There are no regulated manufacturing standards in place for many herbal compounds and some marketed supplements have been found to be contaminated with toxic metals or other drugs. .

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