Aside from its many culinary uses, fennel and its seeds offer a wide array of health benefits and may provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects.Vitamin C also acts as a potent antioxidant in your body, protecting against cellular damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals ( 3 ).Both the bulb and seeds contain the mineral manganese, which is important for enzyme activation, metabolism, cellular protection, bone development, blood sugar regulation, and wound healing ( 4 ).Finally, the plant compound limonene helps combat free radicals and has been shown to protect rat cells from damage caused by certain chronic diseases ( 9 , 10 ).Summary All parts of the fennel plant are rich in powerful antioxidants like chlorogenic acid, limonene, and quercetin — all of which may benefit health.That said, another study in 47 women found that those who supplemented with 300 mg of fennel extract daily for 12 weeks gained a small amount of weight, compared to a placebo group.For example, including rich sources of potassium in your diet may help reduce high blood pressure, a risk factor for heart disease ( 15 ).May have cancer-fighting properties The wide array of powerful plant compounds in fennel may help protect against chronic diseases, including certain cancers.Negative side effects, such as poor weight gain and difficulty feeding, have also been reported in infants whose mothers drank lactation teas containing fennel ( 21 , 22 , 23 ).Studies show that fennel extract inhibits the growth of potentially harmful bacteria and yeasts, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ( 24 ).A review of 10 studies noted that fennel may improve sexual function and satisfaction in menopausal women, as well as relieve hot flashes, vaginal itching, dryness, pain during sex, and sleep disturbances ( 27 ).It’s important to note that many of these studies used concentrated doses of the plant, and it’s unlikely that eating small amounts of fennel or its seeds would offer the same benefits.A study that evaluated the teratogenicity of fennel essential oil showed that high doses may have toxic effects on fetal cells ( 28 ).Although eating fennel and its seeds is likely safe, pregnant women should avoid taking supplements or ingesting the essential oil of this plant.Summary Although eating fennel and its seeds is likely safe, consuming higher doses in supplement form may react with certain medications and is unsafe for pregnant women. .

FENNEL: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions

Abramson, C. I., Wanderley, P. A., Wanderley, M.

J., Silva, J. C., and Michaluk, L. M.

The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae).Agarwal, R., Gupta, S. K., Agrawal, S. S., Srivastava, S., and Saxena, R.

Oculohypotensive effects of foeniculum vulgare in experimental models of glaucoma.B. and Shishodia, S.

Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.B. and Shishodia, S.

Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning.B., Harikumar, K. B., Tharakan, S.

T., Sung, B., and Anand, P. Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention.Alexandrovich, I., Rakovitskaya, O., Kolmo, E., Sidorova, T., and Shushunov, S. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.Bub, S., Brinckmann, J., Cicconetti, G., and Valentine, B.

Efficacy of an herbal dietary supplement (Smooth Move) in the management of constipation in nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Activity against drug resistant-tuberculosis strains of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases.Choi, E. M. and Hwang, J. K.

Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.dulce (sweet fennel), Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) and Mentha x piperita (peppermint).Gutierrez, J., Rodriguez, G., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening.Hotta, M., Nakata, R., Katsukawa, M., Hori, K., Takahashi, S., and Inoue, H. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.Javidnia, K., Dastgheib, L., Mohammadi, Samani S., and Nasiri, A. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract.Joshi, H. and Parle, M. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.Lee, H.

S. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp.Modaress, Nejad, V and Asadipour, M.

Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea.Murone, A. J., Stucki, P., Roback, M. G., and Gehri, M.

Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.Namavar, Jahromi B., Tartifizadeh, A., and Khabnadideh, S. Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp.Picon, P. D., Picon, R.

V., Costa, A. F., Sander, G. B., Amaral, K.

M., Aboy, A. L., and Henriques, A.

T. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation.Platel K and Srinivasan K.

A Study of the digestive stimulant action of select spices in experimental rats.Schone, F., Vetter, A., Hartung, H., Bergmann, H., Biertumpfel, A., Richter, G., Muller, S., and Breitschuh, G. Effects of essential oils from fennel (Foeniculi aetheroleum) and caraway (Carvi aetheroleum) in pigs.Singh, B. and Kale, R. K.

Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.Subehan, Usia, T., Iwata, H., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y. Mechanism-based inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 by Indonesian medicinal plants.Subehan, Zaidi, S.

F., Kadota, S., and Tezuka, Y. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.Tognolini, M., Ballabeni, V., Bertoni, S., Bruni, R., Impicciatore, M., and Barocelli, E.

Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis.Tognolini, M., Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Bruni, R., Bianchi, A., Chiavarini, M., and Impicciatore, M. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.Vasudevan, K., Vembar, S., Veeraraghavan, K., and Haranath, P.

S. Influence of intragastric perfusion of aqueous spice extracts on acid secretion in anesthetized albino rats.Wright, C. I., Van Buren, L., Kroner, C. I., and Koning, M.

M. Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific evidence.Zahrani SH, Amjady MA, Mojab F, and et al.

Clinical effects of foeniculum vulgare extract on systemic symptoms of primary dysmenorrhea in students of Shaheed Beheshti University in Tehran [Farsi].Zeller, A., Horst, K., and Rychlik, M. Study of the metabolism of estragole in humans consuming fennel tea.Zidorn, C., Johrer, K., Ganzera, M., Schubert, B., Sigmund, E.

M., Mader, J., Greil, R., Ellmerer, E. P., and Stuppner, H. Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae vegetables carrot, celery, fennel, parsley, and parsnip and their cytotoxic activities.Abedi P, Najafian M, Yaralizadeh M, Namjoyan F. Effect of fennel vaginal cream on sexual function in postmenopausal women: A double blind randomized controlled trial.Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.Bae J, Kim J, Choue R, Lim H. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) tea drinking suppresses subjective short-term appetite in overweight women.Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem.Chakurski I, Matev M, Koichev A, et al.

[Treatment of chronic colitis with an herbal combination of Taraxacum officinale, Hipericum perforatum, Melissa officinaliss, Calendula officinalis and Foeniculum vulgare].Falahat F, Ayatiafin S, Jarahi L, et al. Efficacy of a herbal formulation based on Foeniculum vulgare in oligo/amenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial.The effect of fennel seed powder on estradiol levels, menopausal symptoms, and sexual desire in postmenopausal women.Gral N, Beani JC, Bonnot D, et al. [Plasma levels of psoralens after celery ingestion].Lee HW, Ang L, Lee MS, Alimoradi Z, Kim E. Fennel for reducing pain in primary dysmenorrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.Mahdavian M, Mirzaii Najmabadi K, Hosseinzadeh H, Mirzaeian S, Badiee Aval S, Esmaeeli H.

Effect of the mixed herbal medicines extract (fennel, chamomile, and saffron) on menopause syndrome: a randomized controlled clinical trial.Nadjarzadeh A, Ghadiri-Anari A, Ramezani-Jolfaie N, et al. Effect of hypocaloric high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with fennel on androgenic and anthropometric indices in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled trial.The effect of fennel essential oil on uterine contraction as a model for dysmenorrhea, pharmacology and toxicology study.Pitasawat B, Champakaew D, Choochote W, et al.

Aromatic plant-derived essential oil: an alternative larvicide for mosquito control.Portincasa P, Bonfrate L, Scribano ML, et al. Curcumin and fennel essential oil improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.(fennel) on menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Savino F, Cresi F, Castagno E, et al.

A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a standardized extract of Matricariae recutita, Foeniculum vulgare and Melissa officinalis (ColiMil) in the treatment of breastfed colicky infants.Trabace L, Tucci P, Ciuffreda L, et al. "Natural" relief of pregnancy-related symptoms and neonatal outcomes: above all do no harm.Weizman Z, Alkrinawi S, Goldfarb D, et al. Efficacy of herbal tea preparation in infantile colic.Effect of oral administration of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on ciprofloxacin absorption and disposition in the rat. .

Fennel: health benefits, recipes, forms, nutrition and more

A 2020 systematic review found that digesting these seeds may also stimulate prolactin to help mothers naturally produce breast milk.Fennel tea may aid digestion and other gastrointestinal issues such as heartburn, bloating, loss of appetite, and colic in infants.The vitamin and mineral content in fennel contributes to building and maintaining bone structure and strength in the following ways:.Insufficient potassium intake can increase a person’s risk of developing high blood pressure.When excessive amounts of homocysteine build up, it can damage blood vessels and lead to heart problems.Fiber intake from fruits and vegetables like fennel is associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer.The selenium found in fennel appears to stimulate the production of killer T-cells and modulates the immune system in other ways.Studies have shown dietary intake of selenium can improve immune response, especially to viral agents.Fennel is a source of vitamin B-6, which plays a vital role in energy metabolism by breaking down carbohydrates and proteins into glucose and amino acids.The fiber content in fennel helps to prevent constipation and promotes regularity for a healthy digestive tract.Dietary fiber is an important factor in weight management and works as a “bulking agent” in the digestive system.These compounds increase satiety and reduce appetite, making an individual feel fuller for longer and lowering overall calorie intake.A 2020 study found that consumption of fennel seed powder reduced menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women over 8 weeks . .

Fennel: Uses, Side Effects, Dose, Health Benefits, Precautions

Abdul-Ghani, A. S. and Amin, R.

The vascular action of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare leaves.Abou-Jawdah, Y., Sobh, H., and Salameh, A. Antimycotic activities of selected plant flora, growing wild in Lebanon, against phytopathogenic fungi.Abramson, C. I., Wanderley, P.

A., Wanderley, M. J., Silva, J.

C., and Michaluk, L. M.

The effect of essential oils of sweet fennel and pignut on mortality and learning in africanized honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae).Agarwal, R., Gupta, S. K., Agrawal, S.

S., Srivastava, S., and Saxena, R. Oculohypotensive effects of foeniculum vulgare in experimental models of glaucoma.B.

and Shishodia, S. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer.B. and Shishodia, S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning.B., Harikumar, K.

B., Tharakan, S. T., Sung, B., and Anand, P. Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention.Alexandrovich, I., Rakovitskaya, O., Kolmo, E., Sidorova, T., and Shushunov, S. The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.Andreev, G. N., Schrader, B., Schulz, H., Fuchs, R., Popov, S., and Handjieva, N. Non-destructive NIR-FT-Raman analyses in practice.Anwar F, Hussain AI, Sherazi STH, and et al.

Changes in composition and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).Aprotosoaie, A. C., Hancianu, M., Poiata, A., Tuchilus, C., Spac, A., Cioana, O., Gille, E., and Stanescu, U.In vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Aridogan, B. C., Baydar, H., Kaya, S., Demirci, M., Ozbasar, D., and Mumcu, E. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of some essential oils.Bajer, T., Adam, M., Galla, L., and Ventura, K.

Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.Baliga, M. S., Jagetia, G.

C., Rao, S. K., and Babu, K.

Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain spices in vitro: a preliminary study.Identification of secondary metabolites in medicinal and spice plants by NIR-FT-Raman microspectroscopic mapping.Barazani, O., Fait, A., Cohen, Y., Diminshtein, S., Ravid, U., Putievsky, E., Lewinsohn, E., and Friedman, J.Chemical variation among indigenous populations of Foeniculum vulgare var.Barros, L., Heleno, S. A., Carvalho, A.

M., and Ferreira, I. C.

Systematic evaluation of the antioxidant potential of different parts of Foeniculumvulgare Mill.Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.Beitz, H. and Pank, F. [Residues of herbicides in medicinal and spice plants.Betts, T. J.

Anethole and fenchone in the developing fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Accidental ingestion of 70% alcohol mistaken for very similarly packaged fennel water].Accidental ingestion of alcohol 70% mistaken for very similarly packaged fennel water].Bobovnikova, TsI, Alekseeva, L. B., Dibtseva, A.

V., Chernik, G. V., Orlinsky, D. B., Priputina, I.

V., and Pleskachevskaya, G. A.The influence of a capacitor plant in Serpukhov on vegetable contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls.Bogucka-Kocka, A., Smolarz, H.

D., and Kocki, J. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines.Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effects of Foeniculum vulgare on guinea pig tracheal chains.Brandelli, C.

L., Giordani, R. B., De Carli, G.

A., and Tasca, T. Indigenous traditional medicine: in vitro anti-giardial activity of plants used in the treatment of diarrhea.Bub, S., Brinckmann, J., Cicconetti, G., and Valentine, B.

Efficacy of an herbal dietary supplement (Smooth Move) in the management of constipation in nursing home residents: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.Activity against drug resistant-tuberculosis strains of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases.Cavazzini, G., Ceccherini, R., Bolognesi, L., Brandi, A., and Rausa, G. [Yersinia enterocolitica: biotypes and serotypes isolated from horticultural products].Cavazzini, G., Guidi, E., and Rausa, G.

[Gram-negative flora of horticultural produce destined for consumption mainly in the raw state].Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats.Cetin, B., Ozer, H., Cakir, A., Polat, T., Dursun, A., Mete, E., Ozturk, E., and Ekinci, M. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil and hexane extract of Florence fennel [Foeniculum vulgare var.B. Anethole blocks both early and late cellular responses transduced by tumor necrosis factor: effect on NF-kappaB, AP-1, JNK, MAPKK and apoptosis.Determination of the antioxidant capacity of culinary herbs subjected to various cooking and storage processes using the ABTS(*+) radical cation assay.Choi, E.

M. and Hwang, J.

K. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Foeniculum vulgare.Conforti, F., Statti, G., Uzunov, D., and Menichini, F.

Comparative chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp.Corbo, M. R., Del Nobile, M.

A., and Sinigaglia, M. A novel approach for calculating shelf life of minimally processed vegetables.Cosge, B., Kiralan, M., and Gurbuz, B. Characteristics of fatty acids and essential oil from sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Croci, L., De Medici, D., Scalfaro, C., Fiore, A., and Toti, L. The survival of hepatitis A virus in fresh produce.Croteau, R., Miyazaki, J.

H., and Wheeler, C. J. Monoterpene biosynthesis: mechanistic evaluation of the geranyl pyrophosphate:(-)-endo-fenchol cyclase from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K.

M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.D'Amico, M., Frisullo, S., and Cirulli, M.

Endophytic fungi occurring in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery--commercial crops in southern Italy.Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.De Marino, S., Gala, F., Borbone, N., Zollo, F., Vitalini, S., Visioli, F., and Iorizzi, M. Phenolic glycosides from Foeniculum vulgare fruit and evaluation of antioxidative activity.Dhalwal, K., Shinde, V.

M., Mahadik, K. R., and Namdeo, A.

G. Rapid densitometric method for simultaneous analysis of umbelliferone, psoralen, and eugenol in herbal raw materials using HPTLC.Diaz-Maroto, M.

C., Diaz-Maroto, Hidalgo, I, Sanchez-Palomo, E., and Perez-Coello, M. S.

Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).Edenharder, R., John, K., and Ivo-Boor, H. [Antimutagenic activity of vegetable and fruit extracts against in-vitro benzo(a)pyrene].A., El Maraghy, S.

S., and Eman, Mostafa M. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in different spices in Egypt.El, S.

N. and Karakaya, S. Radical scavenging and iron-chelating activities of some greens used as traditional dishes in Mediterranean diet.Elgayyar, M., Draughon, F.

A., Golden, D. A., and Mount, J.

R. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.Ercolani, G. L. Bacteriological quality assessment of fresh marketed lettuce and fennel.Farag, R, Abu-Raiia, S, and Abdel-Moein, N.

The essential oils of coriander, common dill, and bitter fennel and their effects on diabetic rats.Farag, R. S. and el Khawas, K. H.

Influence of gamma-irradiation and microwaves on the antioxidant property of some essential oils.Faudale, M., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J., Poli, F., and Codina, C. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible, and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries.dulce (sweet fennel), Anthemis nobilis (Roman chamomile) and Mentha x piperita (peppermint).Giosafatto, C. V., Mariniello, L., and Ring, S.

Extraction and characterization of Foeniculum vulgare pectins and their use for preparing biopolymer films in the presence of phaseolin protein.Guerrini, A., Sacchetti, G., Muzzoli, M., Moreno, Rueda G., Medici, A., Besco, E., and Bruni, R. Composition of the volatile fraction of Ocotea bofo Kunth (Lauraceae) calyces by GC-MS and NMR fingerprinting and its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity.Gutierrez, J., Rodriguez, G., Barry-Ryan, C., and Bourke, P. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening.Harder, J., Heyen, U., Probian, C., and Foss, S. Anaerobic utilization of essential oils by denitrifying bacteria.A., Cattley, T., and Myers, S. P. Essential oils in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: A preliminary in vitro study.Effects of fragrance inhalation on sympathetic activity in normal adults.Hotta, M., Nakata, R., Katsukawa, M., Hori, K., Takahashi, S., and Inoue, H.

Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.[The effects of inhalation of essential oils on the body weight, food efficiency rate and serum leptin of growing SD rats].Iten, F. and Saller, R. [Fennel tea: risk assessment of the phytogenic monosubstance estragole in comparison to the natural multicomponent mixture].Iyer, L. V., Ho, M.

N., Shinn, W. M., Bradford, W. W., Tanga, M. J., Nath, S. S., and Green, C. E.

Glucuronidation of 1'-hydroxyestragole (1'-HE) by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B7 and UGT1A9.Javidnia, K., Dastgheib, L., Mohammadi, Samani S., and Nasiri, A. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract.Jazani, N.

H., Zartoshti, M., Babazadeh, H., Ali-daiee, N., Zarrin, S., and Hosseini, S. Antibacterial effects of Iranian fennel essential oil on isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii.Joshi, H.

and Parle, M. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.Kaileh, M., Berghe, W. V., Boone, E., Essawi, T., and Haegeman, G.

Screening of indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants for potential anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity.Spice derived essential oils: effective antifungal and possible therapeutic agents.Kapoor, R., Giri, B., and Mukerji, K. G.

Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculum vulgare mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer.Kaur, G. J. and Arora, D.

S. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi.Krizman, M., Baricevic, D., and Prosek, M. Determination of phenolic compounds in fennel by HPLC and HPLC-MS using a monolithic reversed-phase column.Lee, H.

S. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp.Lis-Balchin, M.

and Hart, S. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro.Lo, Cantore P., Iacobellis, N.

S., De Marco, A., Capasso, F., and Senatore, F. Antibacterial activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var.Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F. A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B.

M., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.McGuffin, M. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook.Miguel, M.

G., Cruz, C., Faleiro, L., Simoes, M. T., Figueiredo, A. C., Barroso, J. G., and Pedro, L.

G. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.Mimica-Dukic, N., Kujundzic, S., Sokovic, M., and Couladis, M.

Essential oil composition and antifungal activity of Foeniculum vulgare Mill obtained by different distillation conditions.Miura, Y., Ogawa, K., Fukui, H., and Tabata, M. Changes in the Essential Oil Components during the Development of Fennel Plants from Somatic Embryoids.Modaress, Nejad, V and Asadipour, M. Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea.Mohsenzadeh, M.

Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium.Moutsatsou, A., Chalarakis, E., and Zarangas, G. Influence of raw materials and distillation equipment on the heavy metal content of waste from an alcoholic anis-type beverage.Murone, A.

J., Stucki, P., Roback, M. G., and Gehri, M.

Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.Nabrzyski, M. and Gajewska, R.

[The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs].Namavar, Jahromi B., Tartifizadeh, A., and Khabnadideh, S. Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.Oka, Y., Nacar, S., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Yaniv, Z., and Spiegel, Y. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode.Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp.Ozcan, M.

M., Erel, O., and Herken, E. E. Antioxidant activity, phenolic content, and peroxide value of essential oil and extracts of some medicinal and aromatic plants used as condiments and herbal teas in Turkey.Ozcan, M.

M., Sagdic, O., and Ozkan, G. Inhibitory effects of spice essential oils on the growth of Bacillus species.Development of a cost-effective method for nitrate and nitrite determination in leafy plants and nitrate and nitrite contents of some green leafy vegetables grown in the Aegean region of Turkey.Papageorgiou, V., Mallouchos, A., and Komaitis, M. Investigation of the antioxidant behavior of air- and freeze-dried aromatic plant materials in relation to their phenolic content and vegetative cycle.PAPOVIAN, G. S., MIRZABEKIAN, A.

O., VANTSIAN, E. A., KARABEKOV, B. P., MELKUMIAN, P.

B., MKRTCHIAN, A. E., and GRIGORIAN, S. M. [OBSERVATION ON BOTULISM CASES CAUSED BY CONSUMPTION OF FOENICULUM.].Parejo, I., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J., Rosas-Romero, A., Flerlage, N., Burillo, J., and Codina, C.

Comparison between the radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of six distilled and nondistilled mediterranean herbs and aromatic plants.Parejo, I., Viladomat, F., Bastida, J., Schmeda-Hirschmann, G., Burillo, J., and Codina, C. Bioguided isolation and identification of the nonvolatile antioxidant compounds from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).Patra, A.

K., Kamra, D. N., and Agarwal, N. Effects of extracts of spices on rumen methanogenesis, enzyme activities and fermentation of feeds in vitro.Peighami-Ashnaei, S., Farzaneh, M., Sharifi-Tehrani, A., and Behboudi, K. Effect of essential oils in control of plant diseases.Seed germination in response to chemicals: effect of nitrogen and pH in the media.Picon, P. D., Picon, R. V., Costa, A.

F., Sander, G. B., Amaral, K. M., Aboy, A. L., and Henriques, A. T. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation.Platel K and Srinivasan K.

A Study of the digestive stimulant action of select spices in experimental rats.Rabsch, W., Prager, R., Koch, J., Stark, K., Roggentin, P., Bockemuhl, J., Beckmann, G., Stark, R., Siegl, W., Ammon, A., and Tschape, H. Molecular epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Agona: characterization of a diffuse outbreak caused by aniseed-fennel-caraway infusion.Ramakrishna, Rao R., Platel, K., and Srinivasan, K. In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine.Reiter, M.

and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig.Ruberto, G., Baratta, M.

T., Deans, S. G., and Dorman, H.

J. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmum maritimum essential oils.Blumenthal, M.

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Fennel tea: 5 health benefits and risks

In the Middle Ages, on Midsummer’s night, people hung fennel over doorways to protect the household from evil spirits.Although it is no longer used as a protective decoration, fennel is still one of the more widely used medicinal plants, being suggested for everything from colic to conjunctivitis.Fennel is used in many different cuisines, from Indian to Italian, to contemporary fusion, and all parts of the plant are used, including the leaves, seeds, and bulb.The ancient Greeks and Romans thought fennel could bring strength and fortitude and lead to longer life.detoxify the body Share on Pinterest Fennel tea may aid healthy digestion, and treat bloating, gas, or cramps, and may also act as a diuretic.It can help the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal system relax and reduce gas, bloating, and stomach cramps.In fact, tinctures or teas made from fennel seeds can be used to treat stomach muscle spasms caused by irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and other conditions affecting the gastrointestinal system.However, roughly 10-20 percent of women who suffer from severe cramping and discomfort during their period do not find relief through this approach.Researchers speculate that fennel helps keep the uterus from contracting, which is what prompts the pain reported by women with dysmenorrhea.The same study from Bangladesh found that fennel extract reduced indications of pain at a level close to that provided by aspirin.Research Share on Pinterest The essential oils derived from fennel seeds have a range of potential beneficial properties.controlling dust mites Researchers found that ground fennel seeds in solution were effective against bacteria that cause indigestion, diarrhea, and dysentery, as well as some hospital-acquired infections.This suggested fennel extracts could be used to help individuals ward off the effects of many chronic diseases and dangerous health conditions, including cancer, hardening of the arteries or atherosclerosis, and inflammation. .

15 Impressive Benefits of Fennel

Fennel, which has the scientific name Foeniculum vulgare miller, or its essence, is widely used around the world in mouth fresheners, toothpaste, desserts, antacids, and in various culinary applications.Apart from the uses of fennel already mentioned, there are numerous medicinal uses and health benefits, mainly due to the components of its essential oils, which are summarized below.According to the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, fennel bulb is a source of energy, vitamin C, dietary fiber, potassium and other essential minerals like calcium, phosphorus, and sodium.Vitamin C improves general immune system health, produces and repairs skin tissues, helps form collagen, and protects the blood vessel walls as an antioxidant against the harmful effects of free radicals that can frequently lead to heart diseases.Some of the components in the fennel essential oil are probably the stimulants as they encourage secretion of digestive and gastric juices, reduce inflammation in the stomach and intestines, and facilitate proper absorption of nutrients from the food.Fennel is also commonly found in medicines that treat abdominal pain, diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and other intestinal issues.This means that it can stimulate the elimination of damaging LDL or bad cholesterol, which is a major factor in heart diseases, atherosclerosis, and strokes.It shows that, in animal subjects, the extract can not only inhibit the growth of tumors, thanks to its concentrations of flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenols, but it even has the potential to be chemoprotective against the harmful effects of radiation during cancer treatment.Fennel is a very rich source of potassium, which can be an essential nutrient in our bodies and is vital for a number of important processes as per a report published in the Journal of Hypertension.High blood pressure is connected to a wide range of health issues, including heart attack, stroke, and atherosclerosis.Also, for diabetics, blood pressure issues can make the management of their insulin and glucose levels very difficult and can be the cause of many potentially lethal complications.Potassium, found in high levels in fennel bulbs and seeds, is an electrolyte, which means that it can facilitate increased electrical conduction throughout the body.Also, fennel is a vasodilator, which means more oxygen reaches the brain and neural activity can work at optimal functionality.Fennel is helpful in curing diarrhea caused by bacterial infections, as it may have some components such as anethol and cineole which may have disinfectant and antibacterial properties.Fennel being rich in many nutrients including vitamin C helps boost the immune system and protects the body against infections and damage caused by free radicals.Furthermore, fennel is used in a number of consumer products to reduce the effects of PMS, and it is also used traditionally as a soothing pain reliever and relaxing agent for menopausal women.This is due to the abundance of antioxidants (vitamin C and amino acids like arginine are very beneficial for rejuvenation of tissues and the prevention of aging), detoxifiers, and stimulants.By protecting against this destruction of the pigment cells, fennel can safely be classified as effective in eye health for numerous reasons.Fennel is useful in respiratory disorders such as congestion, bronchitis, and cough due to the presence of cineole and anethole, which are expectorant in nature, among their many other virtues.Fennel seeds and powder can help break up phlegm and prompt loosening of the toxins and buildup of the throat and nasal passages for elimination from the body to ensure quick recovery from respiratory conditions.Certain components of the fennel essential oil such as anethol, and a few other chemicals present in the plant itself can be dangerous if ingested in too large a quantity. .

The health benefits of fennel

This review focuses on the benefits of consuming the whole vegetable, though it should be noted that fennel seed has attracted a lot of attention as a therapeutic agent for a wide range of conditions.Varieties such as the Florence or Finocchio are treated as a vegetable, but you can also buy fennel as a herb with foliage resembling dill.A member of the Apiaceae (carrot) family, it’s grown for its edible shoots, leaves and seeds, and has a strong aniseed flavour, making it an attractive and versatile ingredient.A good source of fibre as well as heart-friendly nutrients like potassium and folate, vegetables like fennel may support heart health.This is because studies report that a plentiful intake of vegetables in the diet appears to lower blood pressure and may help manage cholesterol.Both these nutrients play an important role in maintaining the health of the skin, as well as the mucous membranes that protect organs like the respiratory tract.A high intake of a wide variety of foods that are rich in these protective polyphenols is linked to a lower risk of a number of chronic diseases.Low in calories but full of flavour, fennel is a useful ingredient to include in a weight management plan.With a low glycaemic index (GI) and high fibre contribution, fennel may help moderate blood sugar release as part of a meal.She is an accredited member of the British Association for Nutrition and Lifestyle Medicine (BANT) and the Complementary & Natural Healthcare Council (CNHC).All health content on bbcgoodfood.com is provided for general information only, and should not be treated as a substitute for the medical advice of your own doctor or any other healthcare professional. .

Fennel Benefits Make It a Longevity-Supporting Superstar

Y our kitchen is full of cooking staples that, besides making food taste delicious, are actually Olive oil, our kitchen is full of cooking staples that, besides making food taste delicious, are actually scientifically linked to longevity turmeric , and garlic are a few longevity superstars health experts rave about on a regular basis.Dan Buettner, a longevity expert has seen first-hand how fennel (a flowering plant in the carrot family that has a mild licorice flavor) is used on a regular basis in Sardinia, Italy, a Blue Zone region where people regularly live to be over 100 in good health.Lucina Corhiolu, RD, an Italian registered dietitian who lives in Sardinia, echoes Buettner in saying that fennel is widely used in this longevity hot spot."The fresh, chopped leaves are added at the end of the preparation of soups, like vegetable minestrone, or with legumes.It's also an important ingredient for a winter soup called favata, made with broad beans, cabbage, and pork.We also use them to season meats, in sweets, in the preparation of olives in brine, to flavor brandy or to be used as a digestive liquor, or simply to sip as an herbal tea.".In his new book, The Blue Zones Challenge, Buettner explains that in Sardinia, whole grains, legumes, meat, fish, poultry, olive oil, and a wide range of other herbs are all part of how they eat as well.Both Buettner and Corhiolu are quick to point out that fennel is high in antioxidants, which are linked to supporting both brain and heart health.A scientific article published in the journal BioMed Research International states that fennel stimulates the contraction of the smooth muscles of the trachea, which helps clear out mucus and harmful bacteria.The same scientific article says that fennel has been linked to lowering blood pressure, directly benefiting cardiovascular health.In animal studies, consuming fennel extract has been linked to improving spatial learning and memory.If you want to use fennel to calm an uneasy stomach or as part of a remedy for getting over a cold, simply enjoying it as a tea is a great way to reap the benefits.Marinated olives are a common appetizer in Sardinia and this recipe shows how to incorporate fennel right into the mix.Walnuts aren't typically thought of as a go-to soup ingredient, but incorporating them into your bowl is a great way to add protein.Taralli is an Italian snack food that's similar to breadsticks made with just a few ingredients: flour, water, yeast, olive oil, and...fennel! .

Roasted Fennel with Garlic & Herbs (Keto, Vegan)

This Roasted Fennel is one of my favourite side dishes because it’s incredibly easy to make, and so delicious.Fennel transforms when roasted, losing all of its licorice flavour and crunchy texture to become caramelized, soft and deliciously buttery.The fennel can be cut and topped with the herbs and garlic up to a day in advance and then put in the oven 30 minutes before eating.The caramelized and buttery flavour: the fennel becomes soft and practically melts in your mouth when roasted.You can even use it to make this Leftover roasted fennel is delicious added warm or cold into a salad. .

Fennel Fronds Are Delicious! Stop Throwing Them Out!

Fronds are those cute frilly green leafy things attached to the stalks that grow out of a fennel bulb.The fronds boast that same anise-forward flavor, but taste more...green, if that makes any sense, with a more delicate texture.You can mix chopped fennel fronds into pestos, salsas, stocks, curries, and vinaigrettes for an added hit of freshness.You can use them to top yogurt dips, eggs, stir-fries, toasts, and seared meats.And they're delicious when tossed into green salads or strewn on top of roasted vegetables.There are a ton of ways to take advantage of the delicate flavor that fennel fronds have to offer. .

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