[4] It is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become widely naturalized in many parts of the world, especially on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks.Florence fennel or finocchio ( , , Italian: [fiˈnɔkkjo]) is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base that is used as a vegetable.Fennel came into Old English from Old French fenoil which in turn came from Latin faeniculum, a diminutive of faenum, meaning "hay".[7] In Hesiod's Theogony, Prometheus steals the ember of fire from the gods in a hollow fennel stalk.As Old English finule, fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.Longfellow's 1842 poem "The Goblet of Life" repeatedly refers to the plant and mentions its purported ability to strengthen eyesight:.Above the lower plants it towers, The Fennel with its yellow flowers; And in an earlier age than ours Was gifted with the wondrous powers Lost vision to restore.It is erect, glaucous green, and grows to heights of up to 2.5 metres (8 ft), with hollow stems.The leaves grow up to 40 centimetres (16 in) long; they are finely dissected, with the ultimate segments filiform (threadlike), about 0.5 millimetres (1⁄50 in) wide.Fennel is widely cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible, strongly flavored leaves and fruits.Fennel has become naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, and in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, and much of Asia and Australia.It propagates well by both, root crown and seed, and is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia[19] and the United States.It appears to do this by outcompeting native species for light, nutrients, and water and perhaps by exuding allelopathic substances that inhibit growth of other plants.[20] In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats.[21][22] On Santa Cruz Island, California for example, fennel has achieved 50 to 90 percent absolute cover.A raw fennel bulb (235 g) consists of 212 g of water, 2.91 g of protein, 0.47 g of fat, and 17.2 g of carbohydrate (including 7.28 g of dietary fiber and 9.24 g of sugars), providing a total of 72.8 Calories (kcal) of energy.A 100-gram reference amount of fennel fruits provides 1,440 kilojoules (345 kilocalories) of food energy, and is a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals, especially calcium, iron, magnesium and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV (table).Fennel fruits are 52% carbohydrates (including 40% dietary fiber), 15% fat, 16% protein and 9% water (table).Fennel was prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine, food, and insect repellent.According to Greek mythology, Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel to carry fire from Mount Olympus to Earth.The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, stewed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw.In many parts of India, roasted fennel fruits are consumed as mukhwas, an after-meal digestive and breath freshener (saunf), or candied as comfit.In Syria and Lebanon, the young leaves are used to make a special kind of egg omelette (along with onions and flour) called ijjeh.Florence fennel is a key ingredient in some Italian salads, often tossed with chicory and avocado, or it can be braised and served as a warm side dish.In Spain, the stems of the fennel plant are used in the preparation of pickled eggplants, berenjenas de Almagro.On account of its aromatic properties, fennel fruit forms one of the ingredients of the well-known compound liquorice powder.Many species in the family Apiaceae or Umbelliferae are superficially similar to fennel, and some, such as poison hemlock, are toxic, so it is unwise, and potentially extremely dangerous, to use any part of any of these plants as a herb or vegetable unless it can be positively identified as being edible.The superficial similarity in appearance between these seeds may have led to a sharing of names and etymology, as in the case of meridian fennel, a term for caraway.Giant fennel (Ferula communis) is a large, coarse plant, with a pungent aroma, which grows wild in the Mediterranean region and is only occasionally grown in gardens elsewhere.In North America, fennel may be found growing in the same habitat and alongside natives osha (Ligusticum porteri) and Lomatium species, useful medicinal relatives in the parsley family.Lomatium species tend to prefer dry rocky soils devoid of organic material.The aromatic character of fennel fruits derives from volatile oils imparting mixed aromas, including trans-anethole and estragole (resembling liquorice), fenchone (mint and camphor), limonene,[36] 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom).[37] Other phytochemicals found in fennel fruits include polyphenols, such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin, among others in minor content. .

fennel

The seeds and extracted oil are suggestive of anise in aroma and taste and are used for scenting soaps and perfumes and for flavouring candies, liqueurs, medicines, and foods, particularly pastries, sweet pickles, and fish. .

10 Science-Based Benefits of Fennel and Fennel Seeds

Aside from its many culinary uses, fennel and its seeds offer a wide array of health benefits and may provide antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects.Vitamin C also acts as a potent antioxidant in your body, protecting against cellular damage caused by unstable molecules called free radicals ( 3 ).Both the bulb and seeds contain the mineral manganese, which is important for enzyme activation, metabolism, cellular protection, bone development, blood sugar regulation, and wound healing ( 4 ).Finally, the plant compound limonene helps combat free radicals and has been shown to protect rat cells from damage caused by certain chronic diseases ( 9 , 10 ).Summary All parts of the fennel plant are rich in powerful antioxidants like chlorogenic acid, limonene, and quercetin — all of which may benefit health.That said, another study in 47 women found that those who supplemented with 300 mg of fennel extract daily for 12 weeks gained a small amount of weight, compared to a placebo group.For example, including rich sources of potassium in your diet may help reduce high blood pressure, a risk factor for heart disease ( 15 ).May have cancer-fighting properties The wide array of powerful plant compounds in fennel may help protect against chronic diseases, including certain cancers.Negative side effects, such as poor weight gain and difficulty feeding, have also been reported in infants whose mothers drank lactation teas containing fennel ( 21 , 22 , 23 ).Studies show that fennel extract inhibits the growth of potentially harmful bacteria and yeasts, such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans ( 24 ).A review of 10 studies noted that fennel may improve sexual function and satisfaction in menopausal women, as well as relieve hot flashes, vaginal itching, dryness, pain during sex, and sleep disturbances ( 27 ).It’s important to note that many of these studies used concentrated doses of the plant, and it’s unlikely that eating small amounts of fennel or its seeds would offer the same benefits.A study that evaluated the teratogenicity of fennel essential oil showed that high doses may have toxic effects on fetal cells ( 28 ).Although eating fennel and its seeds is likely safe, pregnant women should avoid taking supplements or ingesting the essential oil of this plant.Summary Although eating fennel and its seeds is likely safe, consuming higher doses in supplement form may react with certain medications and is unsafe for pregnant women. .

Real Food Encyclopedia

Fresh fennel bulbs should be stored in a less-cold part of your refrigerator: exposure to very cold temperatures can cause rupture of the cell membranes — not at all delicious.The bulbs will keep in the fridge for up to a week wrapped in a paper towel; any longer and you run the risk of tough fennel.The fronds can be wrapped in damp paper towels and stored in the refrigerator, but they tend to wilt or dry out within a day or two. .

What is Fennel—and What Can I Do With It?

From bulb to stalk to frond, here's how to grow, select, and cook with fennel, the sweet anise-flavored veggie that deserves a spot on your plate.Like celery, the entire fennel plant is edible and lends itself to a wide variety of cooking applications.Just one cup of fennel contains almost 20 percent of your recommended daily value of vitamin C. You'll also find plenty of iron, fiber, and potassium.Try planting fennel varieties such as Zefa Fino or Trieste—they resist the urge to flower, channeling their energy into the bulb instead.Look for small, heavy, white bulbs that are firm and free of cracks, browning, or moist areas.Wrapped in plastic, fennel keeps for just a few days in the vegetable bin of your refrigerator; the flavor fades as it dries out.All parts of the fennel plant—bulb, stalk, and the feathery fronds—are edible, and will add texture and flavor to salads, slaws, pastas, and more.Thinly sliced raw fennel bulb adds a sweet licorice flavor and crunchy texture to salads.To slice the bulb, stand it on the root end and cut vertically with a sharp knife of mandolin.Fennel stalks can take the place of celery in soups and stews, and can be used as a "bed" for roasted chicken and meats.Raw fennel bulb packs a crisp texture and distinctive licorice flavor—here, we showcase it alongside cucumbers and bell peppers in this crunchy-creamy salad, then top it with toasted panko breadcrumbs and fresh dill.This dish combines delicate, sweet crab meat with anise-y fennel, which play nicely together for a simple, light pasta, perfect for the warmer weather.Sliced fennel bulb becomes mellow and sweet once sautéed and braised in chopped, strained tomatoes.Serve as a side to sauteed or grilled shrimp, halibut, flounder, or any other mild white fish.

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Fennel Fronds Are Delicious! Stop Throwing Them Out!

Fronds are those cute frilly green leafy things attached to the stalks that grow out of a fennel bulb.The fronds boast that same anise-forward flavor, but taste more...green, if that makes any sense, with a more delicate texture.You can mix chopped fennel fronds into pestos, salsas, stocks, curries, and vinaigrettes for an added hit of freshness.You can use them to top yogurt dips, eggs, stir-fries, toasts, and seared meats.And they're delicious when tossed into green salads or strewn on top of roasted vegetables.There are a ton of ways to take advantage of the delicate flavor that fennel fronds have to offer. .

Fennel Name Meaning & Fennel Family History at Ancestry.com®

Within census records, you can often find information like name of household members, ages, birthplaces, residences, and occupations. .

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