The commercially available EOs used in this work were OR from O. vulgare L., TY from T. vulgaris L., CL from E. caryophyllata L., LA from L.

angustifolia Mill., SA from S. sclarea L., and AR from T. plicata Donn.The EOs were stored in amber glass vials and sampled using sterile pipet tips to minimize contamination and oxygen exposure.HEL 12469 human embryo lung cells (Human embryonic lung fibroblast; ECACC 94101201), were cultivated in Eagle’s Minimum Essential Medium (MEM) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS), 1% non-essential amino acids and antibiotics (streptomycin 50 μg/mL and penicillin 50 U/mL)50.The chemicals and media used for cell cultivation were purchased from Gibco BRL (Paisley, UK).A single colony from an overnight bacterial culture plate was seeded into 5 mL of an appropriate pre-warmed growth medium broth (LBB or MHB).Culture tubes were shaken at 300 rpm and 37 °C until the 600 nm absorbance of the growth solution was greater than 1.0.The MIC and MBC of each EO was determined using a broth microdilution method in 96-well strip tubes with transparent strip-caps according to Poaty et al.17 with modification.MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of EO that inhibited visible growth of the tested microorganism.It was determined by subculturing from wells that exhibited no color change to sterile MHA plates that do not contain the test EO.The resulting mixture of sporangiospores and hyphal fragments was withdrawn and transferred to a sterile tube.Filter paper discs (6 mm Ø Whatman No.1) were placed on the agar surface of the Petri dishes and each EO, dissolved in DMSO at different concentrations (75, 50, 25, 10, 5%) was individually added.The center of each solidified medium was inoculated upside down with 6-mm square mycelial plugs cut from the periphery of 7-day-old cultures.The concentration unfavorable for growth revival during the transfer experiment was taken as the MFC and this effect was identified as fungicidal.Transfer experiments for determining the fungistatic or fungicidal activity of EO vapors were carried out by replacing the Petri dish lid with a new, untreated one and incubating in an inverted orientation for an additional 7 days at 26 °C.The effect was also confirmed by reinoculating the inhibited fungal mycelial plugs into fresh MEB without EO.Exponentially growing HEL 12469 cells cultured in complete MEM were seeded onto 96 well plates (density of 2 × 104 cells/well) and later incubated in the presence or absence (negative control) of 0.0025–1.0 µL/mL EO for 24 h to test for cytotoxicity using the MTT assay58.This reduction takes place only when reductase enzymes are active, and therefore conversion is often used as a measure of viable (living) cells.The MTT solution was then replaced with 100 μL of DMSO and the plates were placed on an orbital shaker for 30 min to completely dissolve the formazan crystals.In brief, 2 × 104 treated and control HEL 12469 cells were embedded in 0.75% low melting point (LMP) agarose.The slides were then neutralized with 3 × 5 min washes with Tris-HCl (0.4 M, pH 7.4), and stained with ethidium bromide (EtBr, 5 µg/mL; Sigma Chemical Company, St.

Louis, MO).Because the antibacterial activity datasets were normally distributed, the independent samples t-test was performed to test for significant differences between groups. .

Lavender: Health benefits and uses

Lavender oil is believed to have antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties, which can help to heal minor burns and bug bites.Some studies suggest that consuming lavender as a tea can help digestive issues such as vomiting, nausea, intestinal gas, upset stomach, and abdominal swelling.A study published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology found that lavender oil could be effective in combating antifungal-resistant infections.In the study, the essential oils distilled from the Lavandula genus of the lavender plant seemed to work by destroying the membranes of fungal cells.The study showed that Lavandula oil is potent and demonstrates antifungal activity on a wide spectrum.A study published in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine compared the effects of several treatments for wound healing.The researchers compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), saline solution, povidone-iodine, and lavender oil.In a more recent study , researchers found that applying lavender oil to the backs of mice helped to promote hair growth over the course of 4 weeks.A review article in the International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice evaluates how effective Silexan might be for patients with different anxiety disorders.The team found that Silexan had an anxiolytic, or anxiety-reducing, effect on patients with generalized or subsyndromal anxiety within 2 weeks.The team found that those exposed to lavender scent reported lower levels of anxiety compared to the other patients.“Our findings suggest that lavender could certainly be used as an effective ‘on-the-spot’ anxiety reduction in dentists’ waiting rooms.” Dr. M.

Kritsidima, study author.A team of researchers at the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, carried out a study to determine whether aromatherapy with Lavandula angustifolia essential oil might reduce symptoms of pain in children after the removal of the tonsils.The frequency of each child’s acetaminophen use and nocturnal awakening due to pain was monitored for 3 days after surgery.Due to the small sample size, more research is required to fully confirm lavender oil as an effective painkiller.One study found that lavender fragrance could have a beneficial effect on insomnia and depression in female college students. .

Alginate–lavender nanofibers with antibacterial and anti

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Lavender Essential Oil: Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, and

Distilled from the plant Lavandula angustifolia, the oil promotes relaxation and believed to treat anxiety, fungal infections, allergies, depression, insomnia, eczema, nausea, and menstrual cramps.It is purported to have anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antidepressant, antiseptic, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, as well as antispasmodic, analgesic, detoxifying, hypotensive, and sedative effects.While there's currently a lack of large-scale clinical trials testing lavender's effects on people with anxiety, a number of studies show that the oil may offer some anti-anxiety benefits.A more recent review of the literature found 5 studies (2010, 2010, 2014, 2015 and 2016) showed benefits ins participants with moderate to severe anxiety.Several studies have shown lavender essential oil may help promote sleep and fight insomnia.The study of 79 students with self-reported sleep problems also found inhaling lavender at bedtime improved daytime energy and vibrancy..Because consuming lavender essential oil can have toxic effects, this remedy should not be ingested unless under the supervision of a medical professional.According to the principles of aromatherapy, breathing in the scent of lavender essential oil or applying lavender essential oil to the skin transmits messages to the limbic system, a brain region known to influence the nervous system and help regulate emotion.When buying pure lavender essential oil, check the label for its Latin name, Lavandula angustifolia.A 2016 study on mice showed that a diluted topically applied lavender essential oil did lead to dramatic hair growth.An earlier study (1998) looked at people with alopecia areata showed improvement in hair growth with a topically applied combination of lavender, thyme, rosemary and cedarwood. .

Lavender essential oil: a review

have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more ’recent’ addition, the essential oils derived from these plants, being widely used as an antibacterial in World War I1,4.The therapeutic potential of essential oils produced from other varieties, such as L. x intermedia (lavandin), L.

stoechas (French lavender) and L. x allardii, have largely been ignored. .

Lavender essential oil: a review

have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent ' addition, the essential oils derived from these plants, being widely used as an antibacterial in World War I],!The oil is traditionally believed to have sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and antiinflammatory properties, in addition to its recognised antimicrobial effects.The therapeutic potential of essential oils produced from other varieties, such as L. x intermedia (lavandin), L. stoechas (French lavender) and L.

x allardii, have largely been ignored.significant scientific some differences do occur in both oil composition and in the reported therapeutic uses for different ~ p e c i e s ~The interest in recent years into the validity/veracity of the traditional beliefs surrounding lavender oil and their scientific basis, if any, was recently reviewed by Cavanagh & Wilkinson?Lavender oil (primarily L. angustifolia) has been found to be active against many species of bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)b ~ R .Recent investigations into the antibacterial properties of a range of Lavandula oils (L. angustifolia, L.

allardii, L. x intermedia 'Grosso', L. x intermedia 'Seal', L. x intermedia 'Miss Donnington', L. x heterophylla and L. stoechas 'Avonview') support the anecdotal use of lavender oils as antibacterial agents and demonstrated that some oils which had previously not been investigated (e.g.

L. heterophylla) displayed good antibacterial activity against a range of bacteria including Streptococcuspyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, S.

aureus, MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, VRE, Shigella sonnei and Propionibacterium acnes 9.No strong correlation has been observed between percentage of major chemical components and antibacterial activity, and P aeruginosa was not susceptible to any Lavandula oil tested9.Lavender oil has also been reported to be an effective antifungal agent against fungi of both medical and agricultural importance, especially in inhibition of germ-tube growth ".Further work is required to determine whether the in uitro results are realised in a clinical environment, but it is clear that not all lavenders are equal in terms of their antimicrobial properties.Indeed, lavender oil today is used predominantly in aromatherapy or massage, and many benefits are claimed for its use in this way, including relief of the symptoms of stress and depression, in improving 'mood' and relieving anxiety 3.For example, a recent study investigating the use of lavender oil aromatherapy in dementia patients found no evidence that a purely olfactory form of aromatherapy led to decreased agitation in severely demented patients and suggested that cutaneous application of the essential oil may be necessary to achieve the Similarly, although percutaneous optimum effect 18. administration of one of the main ingredients of lavender oil, (-)linalool, led to a decrease in systolic blood pressure and skin temperature, compared to a corresponding control group receiving a placebo, no effect on subjective evaluation of wellbeing was noted 19.Conversely, several authors have noted an association between lavender odour, positive emotional states and therapeutic benefit 22~25.Similarly, in a pilot study by Walsh & Wilson 27,long-stay neurology in-patients also showed increased mood scores and reduced psychological distress following aromatherapy (tea tree, rosemary and L. angustifolia oils), suggesting that lavender aromatherapy can improve patients' experiences in intensive care with no detrimental physical or behavioural outcomes.In an other recent (animal) study, it was shown that inhalation of lavender oil (L. x intermedia 'Grosso') for 1 hour resulted in significant analgesic activity at doses that did not produce a sedative sideeffect, with the oil appearing to significantly reduce the acetic acid-writhing response in a naloxone-sensitive manner.It has been suggested, however, that, rather than having a direct analgesic effect, inhalation of lavender oil may simply elicit a more positive appraisal and subsequent positive retrospective evaluation of treatment-related pain from the patient when they report on lavender aromatherapy associated pain relief ".Interestingly, Barocelli et al. z' also reported that oral administration of lavender oil, or its major constituents linalool or linalyl acetate, could protect animals against acute ethanolinduced gastric ulcers.For example, studies investigating the relationship between biological activity and chemical composition of lavender have found no correlation between linalool or linalyl acetate content.There is no doubt that identification of the biologically active components of lavender oil and determination of their mechanisms of action, in isolation and in combination, will help to clarify many of the inconsistencies currently found in lavender oil research and may lead to identification of novel, effective therapeutic compounds.Indeed, one constituent of lavender oil, perillyl alcohol (POH)has recently been identified as a potential anticancer agent, which may be useful in both treatment and prevention3l.".In conclusion, many more claims are made for therapeutic benefit derived from lavender oil than are reviewed in this paper; however, controversy surrounds many aspects (reviewed in Cavanagh & Wilkinson 9).Further research is required to determine the true bioactivity of lavender oil and its constituents.Lis-Balchin M, Deans SG & Eaglesham E. Relationship between bioactivity and chemical composition of commercial essential oils.Inouye S, Yamaguchi H & Taluzawa T.

Screening of the antibacterial effects of a variety of essential oils on respiratory tract pathogens, using the modified dilution assay method.Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, & Polissiou MG. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum.Inouye S, Watanabe M, Nishiyama Y, Takeo K, Akao M & Yamaguchi H.

Antisporulating and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils on filamentous fungi.Inouye S, Tsuruoka T, Watanabe M, Takeo K, Akao M, Nishiyama Y & Yamaguch H. Idubitory effect of essential oils on apical growth of Aspergillusfumigatus.Inouye S, Tsuruoka T, Uchida K & Yamaguchi H.

Effect of sealing and Tween 80 on the antifungal susceptibility testing of essential oils.Heuberger E, Redhammer S & Buchbauer G. Transdermal absorption of (-)-linalool induces autonomic deactivation but has no impact on ratings of well-being in humans.Soden K, Vincent K, Craske S, Lucas C & Ashley S.

A randomized controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting.Masago R, Matsuda T, IOkuchi Y, Miyazaki Y, Iwanaga K, Harada H & Katsuura T. Effects of inhalation of essential oils on EEG activity and sensory evaluation.Millot J-L & Brand G. Effects of pleasant and unpleasant ambient odors on human voice pitch.The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific low back pain in Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial.Barocelli E, Calcina F, Chiavarini M, Impicciatore M, Bruni R, Bianchi A & Ballabeni V. Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of inhaled and orally administered Lavandula hybrida Reverchon "Grosso" essential oil.Bioactive plant compounds Inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in human cancer cell lines, in vitro.Liston BW, Nines R, Carlton PS, Gupta A, Aziz R, Frankel W & Stoner GD.



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