Mint is a popular ingredient in several foods and beverages, ranging from teas and alcoholic drinks to sauces, salads and desserts.Antioxidants help protect your body from oxidative stress, a type of damage to cells caused by free radicals ( 3 ).Summary Although not typically consumed in large quantities, mint contains fair amounts of several nutrients and is an especially good source of vitamin A and antioxidants.Peppermint oil contains a compound called menthol, which is thought to help alleviate IBS symptoms through its relaxing effects on the muscles of the digestive tract ( 4 , 5 ).Notably, nearly all research showing IBS symptom relief used oil capsules rather than raw mint leaves.Multiple studies have shown that food passes through the stomach quicker when people take peppermint oil with meals, which could relieve symptoms from this type of indigestion ( 8 , 9 ).Similar to IBS, studies highlighting mint’s ability to relieve indigestion used peppermint oil rather than fresh or dried leaves.Summary Several studies have shown that peppermint oil can speed up how quickly food moves through the stomach, relieving digestive symptoms associated with indigestion.One study including 144 young adults demonstrated that smelling the aroma of peppermint oil for five minutes prior to testing produced significant improvements in memory ( 11 ).Another study found that smelling these oils while driving increased alertness and decreased levels of frustration, anxiety and fatigue (12).Another study similarly showed that only 3.8% of mothers who applied a peppermint gel experienced nipple cracks, compared to 6.9% of those who used lanolin and 22.6% of those who used a placebo ( 15 ).Furthermore, an additional study showed that both the pain and severity of nipple cracks decreased in mothers who applied menthol essential oil after each feeding ( 16 ).Summary Applying mint essential oils in various forms appears to be effective in preventing and treating nipple cracks and pain typically associated with breastfeeding.This means that although menthol doesn’t work as a decongestant, it can make people feel like they are breathing through their nose easier.Summary Although menthol does not function as a nasal decongestant, it can provide some relief to cold and flu symptoms by subjectively improving breathing through the nose.Peppermint tea and chewing on mint leaves may be more beneficial in reducing bacteria that cause bad breath.Summary Mint can easily be added to your diet, though most of the research showing health benefits involved taking it as a capsule, applying it to the skin or inhaling it via aromatherapy. .

8 powerful benefits of mint leaves you can't ignore

It not only adds an extra dash of flavour, freshness and aroma but can also benefit you in several other ways given that it has medicinal properties as well.Do you remember being offered pudin hara when you complained about a stomach ache in school?Mint leaves are rich in phosphorus, calcium and vitamins like C, D, E and A which improve the body’s immune system.Due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties, it soothes and calms your skin which can prove to be beneficial for treating acne.Mint leaves contain high levels of salicylic acid which is known for combating acne and blemishes.Mint leaves contain a powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent called rosmarinic acid.This agent blocks allergy-producing compounds, helping people suffering from allergies and asthma.Moreover, it kills bacteria and beats bad breath, keeping your mouth and teeth naturally healthy.The aroma of mint helps in relaxing your brain and body by calming your mind.Mint also has adaptogenic properties which regulate the cortisol levels and builds a natural resilience to stress. .

Mint Leaves Health Benefits, Nutrients, Preparation, and More

Mint is a leafy plant that's perhaps best known for its association with fresh breath due to the cool sensation it creates in the mouth.All varieties of mint leaves may be used fresh, in dried herb form, brewed as a tea, or concentrated in an essential oil. .

Mint: Benefits, nutrition, and dietary tips

Using fresh mint and other herbs and spices in cooking can help a person add flavor while reducing their sodium and sugar intake.Different types of mint plants offer a range of antioxidant qualities and potential health benefits, especially for people who have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).Mint is a calming herb that people have used for thousands of years to help soothe an upset stomach or indigestion.A 2019 review found that placebo-controlled studies support the use of peppermint oil as a remedy for a range of gastrointestinal conditions, including indigestion, IBS, stomach pain in children, and feelings of sickness after surgery.The authors of the review found that mint works against harmful microbes, regulates muscle relaxation, and helps control inflammation.A different review from the same year assessed 12 randomized controlled trials and found that peppermint oil was a safe and effective intervention for pain symptoms in adults with IBS.A 2019 study on rats found that rosmarinic acid reduced symptoms of asthma when compared to a control group that did not receive a supplement.However, the American Lung Association (ALA) advise that scientific studies do not support the use of menthol for managing cold symptoms.Mint is relatively easy to grow, and people can cultivate it at home, making it a sustainable way to add flavor to meals.Incorporating mint into a fresh fruit salsa with chopped apples, pear, lemon or lime juice, jalapeno, and honey. .

PEPPERMINT: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions

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Control of Aspergillus section Flavi growth and aflatoxin accumulation by plant essential oils.Capanni M, Surrenti E, Biagini M, and et al. Efficacy of peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, controlled trial.Castillo-Juarez, I., Gonzalez, V., Jaime-Aguilar, H., Martinez, G., Linares, E., Bye, R., and Romero, I.

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A novel treatment of postherpetic neuralgia using peppermint oil.Djenane, D., Aider, M., Yanguela, J., Idir, L., Gomez, D., and Roncales, P. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E.

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A 'tea' containing various plant products as adjuvant to chemotherapy of urinary tract infections.Eccles, R. and Jones, A. S. The effect of menthol on nasal resistance to air flow.Eccles, R., Griffiths, D.

H., Newton, C. G., and Tolley, N. S. The effects of D and L isomers of menthol upon nasal sensation of airflow.Fazlara, A., Najafzadeh, H., and Lak, E.

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E., Schiller, L., Quigley, E. M., and Moayyedi, P. Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.Freise, J. and Kohler, S. [Peppermint oil-caraway oil fixed combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia-- comparison of the effects of enteric preparations].Gao, M., Singh, A., Macri, K., Reynolds, C., Singhal, V., Biswal, S., and Spannhake, E. W.

Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system.Gelal, A., Jacob, P., III, Yu, L., and Benowitz, N. L. Disposition kinetics and effects of menthol.Geuenich, S., Goffinet, C., Venzke, S., Nolkemper, S., Baumann, I., Plinkert, P., Reichling, J., and Keppler, O.

T. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density.Goerg, K.

J. and Spilker, T. Effect of peppermint oil and caraway oil on gastrointestinal motility in healthy volunteers: a pharmacodynamic study using simultaneous determination of gastric and gall-bladder emptying and orocaecal transit time.Haeseler, G., Maue, D., Grosskreutz, J., Bufler, J., Nentwig, B., Piepenbrock, S., Dengler, R., and Leuwer, M.

Voltage-dependent block of neuronal and skeletal muscle sodium channels by thymol and menthol.Hansen B, Babiak G, Schilling M, and et al. A mixture of volatile oils in treatment of common cold.The actions of peppermint oil and menthol on calcium channel dependent processes in intestinal, neuronal and cardiac preparations.Hiki, N.

[Peppermint oil reduces gastric motility during the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy].Hiki, N., Kaminishi, M., Hasunuma, T., Nakamura, M., Nomura, S., Yahagi, N., Tajiri, H., and Suzuki, H. A phase I study evaluating tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of L-menthol in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.An analysis using patch clamp electrophysiology and isolated tissue pharmacology in rabbit and guinea pig.Holtmann, G., Madisch, A., and Juergen, H. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract].Iida, H., Inamori, M., Uchiyama, T., Endo, H., Hosono, K., Akiyama, T., Sakamoto, Y., Fujita, K., Takahashi, H., Yoneda, M., Koide, T., Tokoro, C., Goto, A., Abe, Y., Kobayashi, N., Kirikoshi, H., Kubota, K., Saito, S., and Nakajima, A.Inamori, M., Akiyama, T., Akimoto, K., Fujita, K., Takahashi, H., Yoneda, M., Abe, Y., Kubota, K., Saito, S., Ueno, N., and Nakajima, A.Early effects of peppermint oil on gastric emptying: a crossover study using a continuous real-time 13C breath test (BreathID system).Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Nishiyama, Y., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S.

Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.Jadad, A. R., Moore, R. A., Carroll, D., Jenkinson, C., Reynolds, D.

J., Gavaghan, D. J., and McQuay, H. J. Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?Jailwala, J., Imperiale, T.

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Allergic contact dermatitis to peppermint foot spray.Katikova, O. I., Kostin, IaV, and Tishkin, V.

S. [Hepatoprotective effect of plant preparations].Katikova, O. I., Kostin, IaV, Iagudina, R.

I., and Tishkin, V. S.

[Effect of plant preparations on lipid peroxidation parameters in acute toxic hepatitis].Khan, M. S., Zahin, M., Hasan, S., Husain, F.

M., and Ahmad, I. Inhibition of quorum sensing regulated bacterial functions by plant essential oils with special reference to clove oil.Lawson MJ, Knight RE, Tran K, and et al.

Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind crossover study.Lis-Balchin, M., Steyrl, H., and Krenn, E. The comparative effect of novel Pelargonium essential oils and their corresponding hydrosols as antimicrobial agents in a model food system.Logan, A.

C. and Beaulne, T.

M. The treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth with enteric- coated peppermint oil: A case report.Mahmoud, S.

S. and Croteau, R.

B. Menthofuran regulates essential oil biosynthesis in peppermint by controlling a downstream monoterpene reductase.Marciani, L., Foley, S., Hoad, C. L., Campbell, E., Totman, J. J., and Cox, E.

Accelerated small bowel transit and contracted transverse colon in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowle syndrome (IBS-D): novel insights from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of peppermint tea (Mentha piperita L.).Merat, S., Khalili, S., Mostajabi, P., Ghorbani, A., Ansari, R., and Malekzadeh, R. The effect of enteric-coated, delayed-release peppermint oil on irritable bowel syndrome.Mimica-Dukic, N., Bozin, B., Sokovic, M., Mihajlovic, B., and Matavulj, M.

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of three Mentha species essential oils.Moher, D., Cook, D. J., Eastwood, S., Olkin, I., Rennie, D., and Stroup, D. F. Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement.Mohsenzadeh, M. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of selected Iranian essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in nutrient broth medium.Naito, K., Komori, M., Kondo, Y., Takeuchi, M., and Iwata, S. The effect of L-menthol stimulation of the major palatine nerve on subjective and objective nasal patency.Naito, K., Ohoka, E., Kato, R., Kondo, Y., and Iwata, S.

The effect of L-menthol stimulation of the major palatine nerve on nasal patency.Nishino, T., Tagaito, Y., and Sakurai, Y. Nasal inhalation of l-menthol reduces respiratory discomfort associated with loaded breathing.Nolkemper, S., Reichling, J., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., and Schnitzler, P.

Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.Norrish, M. I.

and Dwyer, K. L. Preliminary investigation of the effect of peppermint oil on an objective measure of daytime sleepiness.Parys, B. T.

Chemical burns resulting from contact with peppermint oil mar: a case report.Pattnaik, S., Rath, C., and Subramanyam, V. R.

Characterization of resistance to essential oils in a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (VR-6).Rafii, F. and Shahverdi, A. R.

Comparison of essential oils from three plants for enhancement of antimicrobial activity of nitrofurantoin against enterobacteria.Rahimi, R. and Abdollahi, M.

Herbal medicines for the management of irritable bowel syndrome: a comprehensive review.Rai, M. K. and Upadhyay, S.

Laboratory evaluation of essential oil of Mentha piperita Linn.leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced chromosomal damage in bone marrow of mice.Samarth, R. M. and Kumar, A.

Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by plant extract Mentha piperita (Linn.).Samarth, R. M.

Protection against radiation induced hematopoietic damage in bone marrow of Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn).Samarth, R. M., Goyal, P.

K., and Kumar, A. Modulation of serum phosphatases activity in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita Linn.Samarth, R.

M., Goyal, P. K., and Kumar, A. Modulatory effect of Mentha piperita (Linn.).on serum phosphatases activity in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation.Protection of swiss albino mice against whole-body gamma irradiation by Mentha piperita (Linn.).Samarth, R. M., Panwar, M., and Kumar, A. Modulatory effects of Mentha piperita on lung tumor incidence, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress in benzo[a]pyrene-treated Swiss albino mice.Protective effects of Mentha piperita Linn on benzo[a]pyrene-induced lung carcinogenicity and mutagenicity in Swiss albino mice.Samarth, R. M., Saini, M.

R., Maharwal, J., Dhaka, A., and Kumar, A. Mentha piperita (Linn) leaf extract provides protection against radiation induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss albino mice.Sandasi, M., Leonard, C.

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The in vitro antibiofilm activity of selected culinary herbs and medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes.Satsu, H., Matsuda, T., Toshimitsu, T., Mori, A., Mae, T., Tsukagawa, M., Kitahara, M., and Shimizu, M. Regulation of interleukin-8 secretion in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells by alpha-humulene.Schelz, Z., Molnar, J., and Hohmann, J. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils.Schmidt, E., Bail, S., Buchbauer, G., Stoilova, I., Atanasova, T., Stoyanova, A., Krastanov, A., and Jirovetz, L. Chemical composition, olfactory evaluation and antioxidant effects of essential oil from Mentha x piperita.Shayegh, S., Rasooli, I., Taghizadeh, M., and Astaneh, S. D. Phytotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque.Spirling, L.

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Botanical perspectives on health peppermint: more than just an after-dinner mint.Sroka, Z., Fecka, I., and Cisowski, W. Antiradical and anti-H2O2 properties of polyphenolic compounds from an aqueous peppermint extract.Effects of olfactory stimulation on the vigilance performance of individuals with brain injury.Tamir, S., Davidovich, Z., Attal, P., and Eliashar, R.

Peppermint oil chemical burn.The inhibition of Candida albicans by selected essential oils and their major components.Taylor B, Luscombe D, and Duthie H. Inhibitory effect of peppermint oil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle.Thompson, Coon J. and Ernst, E.

Systematic review: herbal medicinal products for non-ulcer dyspepsia.Umezu, T. and Morita, M. Evidence for the involvement of dopamine in ambulation promoted by menthol in mice.Umezu, T.

Evidence for dopamine involvement in ambulation promoted by menthone in mice.Umezu, T. Evidence for dopamine involvement in ambulation promoted by pulegone in mice.Umezu, T., Sakata, A., and Ito, H.

Ambulation-promoting effect of peppermint oil and identification of its active constituents.Effect of inhaled essential oils on mental exhaustion and moderate burnout: a small pilot study.Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S. J., Talley, N. J., Bytzer, P., Klein, K.

B., Whorwell, P. J., and Zinsmeister, A. R. Design of treatment trials for functional gastrointestinal disorders.Vermaat, H., van Meurs, T., Rustemeyer, T., Bruynzeel, D. P., and Kirtschig, G. Vulval allergic contact dermatitis due to peppermint oil in herbal tea.A., Ball, T.

M., and Davis, M. F. Systematic review of treatments for recurrent abdominal pain.White DA, Thompson SP, Wilson CG, and et al.

A pharmacokinetic comparison of two delayed-release peppermint oil preparations, Colpermin and Mintec, for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.Wilkins, T., Pepitone, C., Alex, B., and Schade, R. R.

Diagnosis and management of IBS in adults.Yadegarinia, D., Gachkar, L., Rezaei, M. B., Taghizadeh, M., Astaneh, S.

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essential oils.Yamasaki, K., Nakano, M., Kawahata, T., Mori, H., Otake, T., Ueba, N., Oishi, I., Inami, R., Yamane, M., Nakamura, M., Murata, H., and Nakanishi, T. Anti-HIV-1 activity of herbs in Labiatae.Effect of peppermint essence on the pain and anxiety caused by intravenous catheterization in cardiac patients: A randomized controlled trial.Comparison of the Effect of Inhalation Aromatherapy with 10% and 30% Peppermint Essential Oils on the Severity of Nausea in Abdominal Surgery Patients.The effect of peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of pruritus in pregnant women.The impact of peppermint oil on the irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of the pooled clinical data.Aromatherapy with peppermint, isopropyl alcohol, or placebo is equally effective in relieving postoperative nausea.Evaluating the effect of Matricaria recutita and Mentha piperita herbal mouthwash on management of oral mucositis in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial.Asao, T., Mochiki, E., Suzuki, H., Nakamura, J., Hirayama, I., Morinaga, N., Shoji, H., Shitara, Y., and Kuwano, H.

An easy method for the intraluminal administration of peppermint oil before colonoscopy and its effectiveness in reducing colonic spasm.Babamohamadi H, Ansari Z, Nobahar M, Mirmohammadkhani M. The effects of peppermint gel on prevention of pressure injury in hospitalized patients with head trauma in neurosurgical ICU: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.The treatment of abdominal distension and dyspepsia with enteric coated peppermint oil following routine gynaecological intraperitoneal surgery.Influence of peppermint oil on absorptive and secretory processes in rat small intestine.Effects of peppermint tea consumption on the activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, Xanthine Oxidase, N-acetyltranferase-2 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases-1A1/1A6 in healthy volunteers.Borhani, Haghighi A., Motazedian, S., Rezaii, R., Mohammadi, F., Salarian, L., Pourmokhtari, M., Khodaei, S., Vossoughi, M., and Miri, R. Cutaneous application of menthol 10% solution as an abortive treatment of migraine without aura: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossed-over study.Response of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation patients administered a combined quebracho/conker tree/M.Efficacy of a Quebracho, Conker Tree, and M. balsamea Willd blended extract in patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation.Cappello G, Spezzaferro M, Grossi L, et al.

Peppermint oil (Mintoil) in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.Carling L, Svedberg L, and Hultsen S. Short term treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome: a placebo-controlled trial of peppermint oil against hyoscyamine.A Novel Delivery System of Peppermint Oil Is an Effective Therapy for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms.Charles, C. H., Vincent, J. W., Borycheski, L., Amatnieks, Y., Sarina, M., Qaqish, J., and Proskin, H. M. Effect of an essential oil-containing dentifrice on dental plaque microbial composition.Dew MJ, Evans BK, Rhodes J.

Peppermint oil for the irritable bowel syndrome: a multicentre trial.Douros A, Bronder E, Andersohn F, et al. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.Evaluation of peppermint oil and ascorbyl palmitate as inhibitors of cytochrome P4503A4 activity in vitro and in vivo.Dyer, J., Ashley, S., and Shaw, C.

A study to look at the effects of a hydrolat spray on hot flushes in women being treated for breast cancer.Efe Ertürk N, Tasci S. The effects of peppermint oil on nausea, vomiting and retching in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: An open label quasi-randomized controlled pilot study.Effectiveness of topical peppermint oil on symptomatic treatment of chronic pruritus.Evans BK, Levine DF, Mayberry JF, and et al.

Multicentre trial of peppermint oil capsules in irritable bowel syndrome.Gobel H, Fresenius J, Heinze A, et al. [Effectiveness of Oleum menthae piperitae and paracetamol in therapy of headache of the tension type].Gobel H, Schmidt G, Soyka D. Effect of peppermint and eucalyptus oil preparations on neurophysiological and experimental algesimetric headache parameters.Effects of Aromatherapy with Lavender and Peppermint Essential Oils on the Sleep Quality of Cancer Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.Han JY, Moosvi Z, Duh E, Park S, Albers GC, Samarasena JB, Karnes W.

Oral IBGard Before Colonoscopy: A Single-Center Double-Blinded, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.Hiki, N., Kaminishi, M., Yasuda, K., Uedo, N., Kobari, M., Sakai, T., Hiratsuka, T., Ohno, K., Honjo, H., Nomura, S., Yahagi, N., Tajiri, H., and Suzuki, H. Multicenter phase II randomized study evaluating dose-response of antiperistaltic effect of L-menthol sprayed onto the gastric mucosa for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.Hiki, N., Kurosaka, H., Tatsutomi, Y., Shimoyama, S., Tsuji, E., Kojima, J., Shimizu, N., Ono, H., Hirooka, T., Noguchi, C., Mafune, K., and Kaminishi, M.

Peppermint oil reduces gastric spasm during upper endoscopy: a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy controlled trial.Hines, S., Steels, E., Chang, A., and Gibbons, K. Aromatherapy for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.Holtmann G, Madisch A, Juergen H, et al.

A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of an herbal preparation in patients with functional dyspepsia [Abstract].Hunt R, Dienemann J, Norton HJ, Hartley W, Hudgens A, Stern T, Divine G. Aromatherapy as treatment for postoperative nausea: a randomized trial.Reduction of mouth malodour and volatile sulphur compounds in intensive care patients using an essential oil mouthwash.Ilmberger, J., Heuberger, E., Mahrhofer, C., Dessovic, H., Kowarik, D., and Buchbauer, G.

The influence of essential oils on human attention.Imagawa A, Hata H, Nakatsu M, et al. Peppermint oil solution is useful as an antispasmodic drug for esophagogastroduodenoscopy, especially for elderly patients.Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, Kamei C.

Antiallergic effect of flavonoid glycosides obtained from Mentha piperita L. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:256-9.Inoue T, Sugimoto Y, Masuda H, Kamei C.

Effects of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) extracts on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats.Iscan G, Kirimer N, Kurkcuoglu M, et al. Antimicrobial screening of Mentha piperita essential oils.Jafarimanesh H, Akbari M, Hoseinian R, Zarei M, Harorani M.

The effect of peppermint (Mentha piperita) extract on the severity of nausea, vomiting and anorexia in patients with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: A randomized controlled trial.Klausner, M. A., Whitmore, C., Henry, E.

V., Baybutt, R. I., and Schachtel, B. P.

Additional antipruritic activity of methol when added to coal tar in dandruff-associated pruritus.Enteric-coated, pH-dependent peppermint oil capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children.Lacy BE, Pimentel M, Brenner DM, et al. ACG clinical guideline: Management of irritable bowel syndrome.Lane, B., Cannella, K., Bowen, C., Copelan, D., Nteff, G., Barnes, K., Poudevigne, M., and Lawson, J.Lawson MJ, Knight RE, Tran K, et al. Failure of enteric-coated peppermint oil in the irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized double-blind crossover study.Liu JH, Chen GH, Yeh HZ, et al. Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial.A brief review of current scientific evidence involving aromatherapy use for nausea and vomiting.Madisch A, Melderis H, Mayr G, et al. [A plant extract and its modified preparation in functional dyspepsia.Maliakal PP, Wanwimolruk S. Effect of herbal teas on hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes in rats.Mapp CP, Hostetler D, Sable JF, et al.

Peppermint oil: Evaluating efficacy on nausea in patients receiving chemotherapy in the ambulatory setting.Masoumi SZ, Asl HR, Poorolajal J, Panah MH, Oliaei SR.Evaluation of mint efficacy regarding dysmenorrhea in comparison with mefenamic acid: A double blinded randomized crossover study.May B, Kuntz HD, Kieser M, Kohler S. Efficacy of a fixed peppermint oil/caraway oil combination in non-ulcer dyspepsia.Melli, M.

S., Rashidi, M. R., Nokhoodchi, A., Tagavi, S., Farzadi, L., Sadaghat, K., Tahmasebi, Z., and Sheshvan, M.

K. A randomized trial of peppermint gel, lanolin ointment, and placebo gel to prevent nipple crack in primiparous breastfeeding women.Melzer J, Rosch W, Reichling J, et al. Meta-analysis: phytotherapy of functional dyspepsia with the herbal drug preparation STW 5 (Iberogast).Moghadam BK, Gier R, and Thurlow T.

Extensive oral mucosal ulcerations caused by misuse of a commercial mouthwash.Mutluay Yayla E, Izgu N, Ozdemir L, Aslan Erdem S, Kartal M. Sage tea-thyme-peppermint hydrosol oral rinse reduces chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: A randomized controlled pilot study.Nolen HW 3rd, Friend DR. Menthol-beta-D-glucuronide: a potential prodrug for treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome.Park, M.

K. and Lee, E. S. [The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students].Peppermint oil improves the manometric findings in diffuse esophageal spasm.Pittler MH, Ernst E.

Peppermint oil for irritable bowel syndrome: a critical review and metaanalysis.Rafieian-Kopaei M, Hasanpour-Dehkordi A, Lorigooini Z, Deris F, Solati K, Mahdiyeh F. Comparing the effect of intranasal lidocaine 4% with peppermint essential oil drop 1.5% on migraine attacks: A double-blind clinical trial.Ramsewak RS, Nair MG, Stommel M, Selanders L.

In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.Peppermint oil in enteric coated capsules for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a double blind controlled trial.Rich G, Shah A, Koloski N, et al. A randomized placebo-controlled trial on the effects of Menthacarin, a proprietary peppermint- and caraway-oil-preparation, on symptoms and quality of life in patients with functional dyspepsia.Rogers SN, Pahor AL.

A form of stomatitis induced by excessive peppermint consumption.Ruepert, L., Quartero, A. O., de Wit, N. J., van der Heijden, G.

J., Rubin, G., and Muris, J. W.

Bulking agents, antispasmodics and antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.Safajou F, Soltani N, Taghizadeh M, Amouzeshi Z, Sandrous M. The effect of combined inhalation aromatherapy with lemon and peppermint on nausea and vomiting of pregnancy: A double-blind, randomized clinical trial.Sayyah, M., Melli, M., Rashidi, M.

R., Delazar, A., Madarek, E., Kargar Maher, M. H., Ghasemzadeh, A., Sadaghat, K., and Tahmasebi, Z.Effect of peppermint water on prevention of nipple cracks in lactating primiparous women: a randomized controlled trial.Efficacy of colpermin in the treatment of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (abstract).Shanazi M, Farshbaf Khalili A, Kamalifard M, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Masoudin K, Esmaeli F. Comparison of the Effects of Lanolin, Peppermint, and Dexpanthenol Creams on Treatment of Traumatic Nipples in Breastfeeding Mothers.Shavakhi, A., Ardestani, S. K., Taki, M., Goli, M., and Keshteli, A. H. Premedication with peppermint oil capsules in colonoscopy: a double blind placebo-controlled randomized trial study.Effects of aromatherapy acupressure on hemiplegic shoulder pain and motor power in stroke patients: a pilot study.Shkurupii, V.

A., Kazarinova, N. V., Ogirenko, A.

P., Nikonov, S. D., Tkachev, A.

V., and Tkachenko, K. G. [Efficiency of the use of peppermint (Mentha piperita L) essential oil inhalations in the combined multi-drug therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis].The effect of herbal, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouthrinse on de novo plaque formation.Sites DS, Johnson NT, Miller JA, Torbush PH, Hardin JS, Knowles SS, Nance J, Fox TH, Tart RC.[1.6% peppermint oil solution as intestinal spasmolytic in retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreatography].Delayed release peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin) for the spastic colon syndrome: a pharmacokinetic study.Storr M, Sibaev A, Weiser D, et al. Herbal extracts modulate the amplitude and frequency of slow waves in circular smooth muscle of mouse small intestine.Tan, C.

C., Wong, K. S., Thirumoorthy, T., Lee, E., and Woo, K-T.

A randomized, crossover trial of Sarna and Eurax lotions in treatment of haemodialysis patients with uraemic pruritus.Peppermint oil enhances cyclosporine oral bioavailability in rats: comparison with D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS) and ketoconazole.Weerts ZZRM, Masclee AAM, Witteman BJM, et al. Efficacy and safety of peppermint oil in a randomized, double-blind trial of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.Yamamoto, N., Nakai, Y., Sasahira, N., Hirano, K., Tsujino, T., Isayama, H., Komatsu, Y., Tada, M., Yoshida, H., Kawabe, T., Hiki, N., Kaminishi, M., Kurosaka, H., and Omata, M.

Efficacy of peppermint oil as an antispasmodic during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. .

Benefits of Mint And Its Side Effects

Commonly known as pudina in India, mint is widely used in Middle Eastern, Indian, British and American cuisines in the form of tea, beverage, candies, jellies, syrup, ice cream, etc.The essential oils that mint is composed of contain phenolic acids, phytosteron, saponins, triterpines, flanovoid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, etc.Mint leaves possesses relaxant properties and is considered to be extremely useful for asthma patients as it relieves congestion in the nasal pipe.This happens as a result of the salivary glands being activated on consumption of mint leaves water that enable the digestive enzymes to be produced in adequate quantities.Mint has been in the form of tea or chewed raw used for clearing congestion in the throat, nose, bronchi and lungs.Mint helps in soothing and cooling the nose, throat and the respiratory channels and preventing a prolong disorder that usually starts with asthma or common cold.Mint enables the release of digestive enzymes that further on consume the fat content of the body in order to produce energy.The essential oils present in the composition of mint are widely known to resist the release of certain chemicals in the body that lead to seasonal allergies and hay fever, also called rhinitis.Owing to the presence of nutritional essential oils and properties such as relaxing and soothing, mint is a highly beneficial herb to enhance the liver strength.It treats and eliminates scars caused due to bites of insects like mosquitoes, honeybees, wasps, gnats and hornets.Applying mint oil on the breast of breastfeeding mothers aids in a steady flow without causing any harm to the sensitive skin and eliminating nipple pain.Research has suggested that certain active enzymes present in mint are equipped with the ability to prevent and cure cancer.In individuals with a gall stone disorder history, mint should be consumed only after careful consultation with a trained medical practitioner. .

Many Uses of Mint Leaves

Mint provides most of our common culinary herbs (e.g., basil, oregano, marjoram, rosemary, sage, thyme, summer and winter savories).A favorite in my summer herb garden is the bright red bee-balm which seeds itself all over the place, makes a great cut flower, and serves as a tasty tea to boot.Many, if not most mint-family members, contain strongly aromatic oils (think lavender, rosemary, basil, thyme, and sage), which account for their many uses as seasoning, flavoring, and perfuming agents.Facial astringent: Add a few finely minced leaves of fresh peppermint or other mint to a cup of witch hazel.Mouthwash: Chop a quarter cup of fresh mint, bee-balm, lemon balm, basil, thyme, or oregano leaves and infuse in a quart of boiling water.Don’t use chew mint-family herbs if you’re breastfeeding, as even small amounts or sage and peppermint may reduce milk supply.Scent up a space: Keep your home smelling fresh by adding a few drops of mint essential oil to your favorite unscented cleaner or just take a cotton ball and dap onto a light bulb.Moth repellent/scented sachet: Tie a few branches of strongly scented mint (peppermint, sage, lavender, rosemary, bee-balm) together, or pull off a handful of leaves, and stuff them into the leg of an old nylon stocking.Bees and butterflies and hover flies love mint, which is rich in nectar and pollen, and this benefits pollinated plants and crops.Mint has been long known as an herbal remedy, easing queasy stomachs, calming stress and anxiety, and promoting restful sleep.Peppermint tea has long been viewed as an excellent way to ease an upset stomach, calming the digestive tract and alleviating indigestion, gas, and cramps.Many, perhaps most, are also being uses for human and veterinary medicine, as insecticides or insect repellents, and as antifungal or antibacterial protection for crop plants.If herbal medicine interests you, please approach the mints, especially their essential oils, tinctures, and concentrated extracts, with care.Although many have been used by traditional healers around the world for centuries, most herbs haven’t undergone rigorous testing for safety and efficacy, especially in pregnant/nursing women, children, elders, and people with chronic illnesses.The essential oil of pennyroyal, historically used to induce menstruation or as an abortifacient, can be lethal if ingested in a large enough dose to accomplish those purposes.Wild spearmint is the real bully, developing an enormous network of tough, quarter-inch-thick rhizomes under flower beds, spilling out into a large section of lawn, sending up a new plant every inch or two from the underground nodes.But if you are cultivating spearmint in your garden, just give this attractive ground cover plenty of room to spread.When cold weather approaches, plants can be lifted and brought indoors in their own pots to give fresh leaves through the first part of winter. .

Mint Tea Benefits and Side Effects

Mint tea benefits are widely promoted, but not all of them are supported by scientific studies.Peppermint tea has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years dating back to Greek, Roman, and Ancient Egyptian cultures.Its bright flavor and reputation as a health aid have made it one of the most popular types of tea in North America.You can purchase mint tea bags at your local grocery store or health market.There is some evidence that peppermint oil may reduce stomach spasms and general gastrointestinal discomfort.Peppermint oil has been shown to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). .

Effects of mango and mint pod-based e-cigarette aerosol inhalation

Essential revisions: This is a potentially important paper that aimed to investigate the effects of vaping on multiple organs.A major limitation is the lack of investigation of (causal) pathophysiological consequences/general organ outcomes that might be driven by the reposted inflammatory response.We appreciate the reviewer identifying it as “of high interest and timely.” Of note, part of working in a new field such as e-cigarettes involves assessing for and detecting signals of potential clinical relevance.To bring the focus back to gene expression, we have conducted RNAseq on the lungs of JUUL exposed mice, and have included those data herein (new Figure 6) to highlight the effects of e-cigarette aerosols on gene expression in the lung, with a particular focus on differences between Mint and Mango flavors (the most popular JUUL flavors at the time of this study).These data support the hypothesis that e-cigarette aerosol inhalation fundamentally alters the lung, which raises the specter of downstream health effects.We have added further discussion regarding the potential consequences of inflammation in each of the organs (pages 13-18), with an emphasis on the effects of neuroinflammation on behavior and psychology.It is clear that further studies are needed to best assess potential psychological and behavioral changes induced by e-cigarette aerosol inhalation.We have added the lack of dedicated behavioral and psychological evaluations as a limitation of this work and as an opportunity for discovery in future studies (page 19).We have conducted the mean linear intercept (MLI) measurements on e-cigarette aerosol exposed lungs and controls per ATS guidelines and have added these data to the manuscript (new Appendix 1- Figure 4M).Of note, the MLI data matches our original physiologic assessments of lung function (Appendix 1 – Figure 2A-2J), including elastance and compliance, which are known to change in the setting of emphysema.We set the target number of mice (n) at that time, such that these studies would be powered to detect a 25% change in cytokine expression.Based on discussions with our biostatisticians, we came to the conclusion that it would not be statistically appropriate to run more mice to increase the n when our primary outcome remains the same.Whilst I do not think that the low N's change the ultimate conclusions, but more rigor (ie more N's) would help solidify the paper given that it will likely be of great interest and scrutinized by the scientific community.We set the target number of mice (n) at that time, such that these studies would be powered to detect a 25% change in cytokine expression.We have conducted the mean linear intercept (MLI) measurements on e-cigarette aerosol exposed lungs and controls per ATS guidelines and have added these data to the manuscript (new Appendix 1- Figure 4M).Of note, the MLI data matches our original physiologic assessments of lung function (Appendix 1 – Figure 2A-2J), including elastance and compliance, which are known to change in the setting of emphysema.One of the must novel conclusions from this paper is increased inflammation in the brain which the authors speculate could lead to altered moods and or change the addiction threshold.We have added further discussion regarding the potential consequences of inflammation in each of the organs (pages 13-19), with an emphasis on the effects of neuroinflammation on behavior and psychology.We have added the lack of dedicated behavioral and psychological evaluations as a limitation of this work and as an opportunity for discovery in future studies (page 19-20).Reviewer #2: Under homeostasis conditions, the authors observed sign of inflammatory responses in the brain, the heart and the colon, while no inflammation was detected in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid of the mice following exposures to JUUL aerosols.Also, JUUL aerosol exposures mediated airway inflammatory responses in the acute lung injury model (LPS).In late 2019 the FDA was moving to ban specific flavors for pod devices, which include those for Mint and Mango.We have expanded the limitation section within the Discussion, and have pointed out that because these studies were conducted in female mice alone, the results may not represent effects in males.Although there are a few limitations related to this study, which should be included in the manuscript, overall, the authors' claims and conclusions are based on the data that is presented through multiple figures.The new title is now: “Effects of Mango and Mint pod-based e-cigarette aerosol inhalation on inflammatory states of the brain, lung, heart and colon in mice”.– In the introduction and Discussion sections, the authors should consider including all in vitro and in vivo studies that have been conducted on JUUL aerosols, since there are very few of those already published articles.The literature review found a total of 13 articles all of which have been cited in the revised manuscript, primarily via the following paragraph added to the Introduction:.Introduction: “Studies of JUUL to date have been predominantly subacute and acute exposures with a focus on in vitro and in vivo experiments.A majority of the current literature examined the cytotoxic effects of varying JUUL flavors (Crème Brulee, Cool Mint, Fruit Medley, Tobacco, Menthol, etc.).These studies concluded that while JUUL pods had significantly lower oxidant yields in comparison to combustible cigarettes, the nicotine concentrations were substantially greater (18-20).While these studies have laid the groundwork for assessing the acute impact of JUUL use on the respiratory system, much work remains to be done on the effects across the body.”.But because many changes could be occurring at the gene expression level, that could set the stage for pathologic responses to common clinical challenges, we conducted new RNAseq studies on lung tissues and have included these data as new Figure 6.We do plan on running JUUL exposures in male mice, but these will be limited to Tobacco and Menthol flavors since these are currently the only ones available on the market.Reviewer #3: In this study, Alex Moshensky et al., investigated effects of chronic aerosol inhalation of flavored JUUL on inflammatory markers in several organs, including brain, lung, heart, and colon in a mouse model.They found that JUUL inhalation upregulated a number of cytokine and chemokine gene expression and increased HMGB1 and RAGE in the nucleus accumbens.To bring the focus back to gene expression, we have conducted RNAseq on the lungs of JUUL exposed mice, and have included those data herein to highlight the effects of e-cigarette aerosols on gene expression in the lung, with a particular focus on differences between Mint and Mango flavors (the most popular JUUL flavors at the time of this study).These new data (new Figure 6) support the hypothesis that e-cigarette aerosol inhalation fundamentally alters the lung, which raises the specter of downstream health effects.Although the formulation of JUUL e-liquids is proprietary, their website claims simplicity (https://www.juul.com/learn/pods) in that they use pharmaceutical grade propylene glycol and glycerol (which makes up the majority of their e-liquids), in order to form an aerosol which carries pharmaceutical grade nicotine and benzoic acid (when combined, create a nicotine salt), and flavors (which can be can be a mixture of natural and artificial ingredients).In Dr. Kheradmand’s recent work, mice exposed to e-cigarette aerosols with and without nicotine were much more susceptible to acute lung injury in the setting of viral pneumonia.Further work is needed to truly define how the subtle, broad shifts in the cytokine milieu across organs will impact the health of e-cigarette vapers.For example, Madison et al., exposed mice to e-cigarette aerosols with and without nicotine and found that both exposures increased susceptibility to acute lung injury in the setting of viral pneumonia.Further work is needed to truly define how the subtle, broad shifts in the cytokine milieu across organs will impact the health of e-cigarette vapers.”.To fully evaluate the health impact of evolving cigarette, it would be informative to included other tobacco or vaping device as control.We agree that such comparisons are likely to provide insight into the differences between devices and formulations and versus cigarette smoke, and thus will be incredibly important for the field.However, because we have run parallel studies in the past with vape pens, box mods, and conventional tobacco, we are hopeful to start combining data to look for trends and differences across inhalant exposures.Although we were unable to include protein based quantification for all organs, we do feel that our original intention of demonstrating broad reaching effects of e-cigarette aerosols across the body was still achieved.But we absolutely agree that more work is needed to fully define the impact of e-cigarette use at the protein, cellular, and organ level. .

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