At the fair, all sorts of merchants, farmers, entertainers, and visitors would gather for food, drink, revelry, and, yes, stocking up on herbs.Back then, herbs were prized for their numerous purported medicinal and healing powers: parsley, for settling the stomach and curing toothaches; sage, to treat epilepsy, liver failure, and fevers; rosemary, for everything from cleaning teeth to warding off evil spirits.Thyme, the most powerful of them all, was long associated with courage, bravery, and strength on the battlefield; it was known to be an antidote to poison, a preventer of the plague, and a lot more.Nowadays, though you might see thyme in the ingredients lists of some of your favorite hygiene and beauty products (that's thanks to thymol, a naturally-occurring chemical found in thyme oil, that has antimicrobial and antifungal properties), it's more likely that you'll see it in recipes for roast chicken, turkey, or stuffing, or as an ingredient in any number of dried poultry spice blends.Thyme, or Thymus vulgaris, is an herb originally from the Mediterranean region that's in the same family as oregano, basil, mint, and shiso.To use fresh thyme in recipes, gently pull the leaves off of the stems (as instructed here), chop up finely, and use liberally.Any number of fresh herbs (and their dried derivatives) work as a substitute for thyme in sweet and savory recipes.Fresh or dried, oregano hits many of the same earthy, minty, savory and slightly bitter notes as thyme.A warning, though: because a few of these contain powdered aromatics, or dried seeds, you may not want to include these in sweet recipes that call for thyme.Hailing from the Levant region, za'atar generally contains dried thyme, oregano, marjoram, sometimes lemony sumac, and toasted sesame seeds and salt.It's got a very distinctive flavor, so you might want to start adding it a little bit at a thyme (pun very much intended) as you're swapping it in a dish. .

Oregano Vs. Thyme: SPICEography Showdown

Another similarity between the two herbs is that they are both members of the mint family, which means that they have a lot in common in terms of flavor and pungency.Thyme imparts its pungent aroma along with its woodsy notes when used to flavor tomato sauces and meats.Both oregano and thyme are considered workable substitutes for each other, though their differences mean that they are not perfectly interchangeable.They have the flavor notes common to herbs in the mint family and both pair well with tomato-based sauces and most meats.Note that only the English and French varieties of thyme are considered effective oregano alternatives.The fact that they are both mints is clear upon inspection; however, thyme leaves are much smaller than those of oregano so it is unlikely that the two would be mistaken for each other. .

What is Zaatar? Is it a Spice, Seasoning, Condiment, or more

The mainstay ingredients of authentic Zaatar the mix, include 1) the ground Zaatar herb with the scientific name of Origanum Syriacum1 which is native to the Middle-East and is believed to be the same Hyssop herb plant in biblical references 2 and combines earthy flavors from thyme, oregano, marjoram, and savory with a peppery finish 2) Sumac powder spice (lemony but without the acidity), and 3) sesame seeds roasted (nutty, crunchy) 4) optional pinch of sea salt.The texture of an authentic mix should not be that of a fine spice powder, but more course, herbal, fluffy and free flowing, and somewhat nutty from freshly roasted sesame seeds.Therefore, most commercial brands use substitutes and fillers to mimic the traditional taste of Zaatar, which results in a wide range of qualities and flavor profiles.Zaatar has an enduring heritage in the Levant/East Mediterranean region as an essential kitchen table staple because it is simple, delicious and offers many relishes.Also, a popular and traditional Zaatar flat bread recipe (Manaesh or Manakish), in Middle-Eastern bakeries is spreading a pasty mix of olive oil and Zaatar on flat breads or pizza dough and is best served piping hot out of an oven (optional toppings may include chopped fine tomatoes, onions, mint leaves), .Examples include bagel and cream cheese, yogurts, salads, vegetable, eggs, meats, fruit, popcorn, and others.More recently, Zaatar has experienced creative culinary incarnations in North America beyond its traditional uses in the Middle East.To really set the standard and raise your expectations for Zaatar, we invite you to try the Tyme Foods brand, conveniently sold here or on Amazon.Importantly, the processing of higher quality Zaatar herb is labor-intensive, and extensive, and employs manual techniques to wash and sift only the tender leaves of the dried plant rather than stalks, stems, and twigs.Premium grades undergo additional processing such as removing a cottony layer found on the thyme leaves, which enhances the purity and flavor.With Zaatar plant leaves, a high or low content of the thymol oil primarily, followed by carvacoral drives the flavor intensity.Within the cultivation regions of the Middle-East, essential oil content of the Zaatar leaves varies widely, from few to forty grams, per kilogram.The Zaatar herb plant is harvested during the summer months and washed in water to clean its velvety leaves of accumulated soil dust. .

7 Uses and Benefits of Thyme Oil

Before you go out and buy a bottle, it’s important to realize that there’s no indication that thyme oil used on its own will cure any specific disease.While more research is needed, thyme oil is currently thought to be beneficial when used as part of overall therapeutic programs, not as a solo treatment or cure.One very preliminary study found that wild thyme extract may eventually show promise at fighting breast cancer.In a study reported in the Journal of Medicine and Life , thyme oil was found to be effective at eliminating food-related bacteria and fungi.Thyme and thymol have been found to have antibacterial effects against bacterium, including salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, and Helicobacter pylori.A 2010 laboratory study published in the Journal of Lipid Research found that the carvacrol in thyme oil was an effective anti-inflammatory agent with cardioprotective capabilities, making it potentially beneficial for people with heart disease.The thymol in thyme oil is effective at reducing inflammation and infection.According to recent research, thymol’s anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties make it beneficial for oral health.The compound is an ingredient in several dental products, including Listerine Cool Mint mouthwash. .

A comparative study of the antimicrobial activity of oregano

The emergence of Salmonella resistance to therapeutic agents against human infections is attributed to their excessive use in the treatment of food-producing animals.The spreading of resistance necessitates vigorous research on alternative therapeutic schemes in order to replace commonly used antimicrobials.Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of three commercially available essential oils (EOs) against fifty-nine Salmonella strains belonging to fourteen serovars isolated from pig carcasses at slaughter.The results showed that oregano and thyme have the potential of an effective alternative treatment against Salmonella spp., especially those strains resistant to synthetic antimicrobials.Pork meat and products are major sources of foodborne salmonellosis in the European Union (EU) and around the world.Subclinically infected pigs, incriminated for carcass contamination at slaughter, are causing 10 to 20% of human cases of salmonellosis in the EU [1,2].The most important threat to human health is the emergence of multidrug resistant Salmonella strains, mainly belonging to serovar Typhimurium.Pigs are recognized as a primary reservoir of such strains, necessitating control measures for public health protection [3-7].Unregulated use of antibiotics in farming practices for many decades, causing selective pressure, is thought the main reason for this emergence [8-12].Therapeutics, such as ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, effective for treating human Salmonella infection, are also administered to food producing animals, implicated in the transmission of resistant strains [13,14].The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains promotes the investigation for new antimicrobial methods in order to control infections in animals.Τhe disinfectant and antibacterial properties of oregano EO were first recognized in ancient Greece, where it was often used for treating bacterial skin and wound infections.Carvacrol and thymol are the two main phenols, constituting about 78.85% of oregano EOs and responsible for the plant’s antimicrobial activity [30].In addition, other minor constituents, such as the monoterpene hydrocarbons g-terpinene and pcymene are also reported as contributors to the antibacterial activity of the oil [35].Among the pharmacologically validated medicinal uses of rosemary are anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiulcerogenic, improving cognitive deficits, antidiuretic, hepatoprotective and antibacterial effects against Gram positive and negative microorganisms [38,40,41].The essential oil of common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) contains 20–54% thymol, which is the compound [43] primarily responsible for its antioxidative activity, including Salmonella spp.These chosen to be investigated EOs are native to temperate Western and Southwestern Eurasia and especially the Mediterranean region [46] including Greece [47], with climatic conditions and geographical morphology promoting the growth of many species of aromatic plants.Therefore, the objective of the present study was primarily to determine the activity of oregano, rosemary and thyme against 59 pig Salmonella spp.The disk diffusion method was applied for the determination of the antibacterial activity of the three selected EOs: oregano, rosemary and thyme (ECO PHARM, Greece, http://www.ecopharm.gr/index.php/products.html).Sterilized Whatman paper discs 6 mm in diameter (Difco, Becton, Dickinson, Sparks, MD) were impregnated with 5, 15 and 30 μl of the EOs.The previously reported resistance of the examined isolates [49, 50] against commercially used antimicrobials is re-reported with table 1 for a comparison with the findings of each EO's activity.houtenae 40:g,t:- (n=1) Rough(n=4) Total No (%) of resistant strains AML 12 8 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 31(52.54) AMC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1(I) 0 AMP 12 8 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 3 31(52.54) SAM 1(I) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2(3.4) AZT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CTX 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 FOX 0 1(I) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CAZ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 EFT 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CRO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CXM 4(I) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 CT 2 2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 7(11.86) C 4 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 3 13(22) DOR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ENR 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 E 21 9 6 7 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 59(100) CN 1 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4(8.1) K 4 1 5 1(Ι) 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1(I) 1(I) 1 14(23.73) NA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 P 18 9 6 6 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 4 52(88.13) RD 15, 6(I) 7, 2(I) 6 6, 1(Ι) 3 1 1 1 1 1, (I) 1 1, (I) 0 1 4 49(83) SXT 10 7 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 4 31(52.54) TE 11 9 6 1 3 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 4 37(62.71) TGC 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1(I) 0 0 1(I) 0 0 Total N. 21 9 6 7 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 59.AML: Amoxicillin; AMC: Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid; AMP: Ampicillin; SAM: Ampicillin-Sulbactam; AZT: Aztreonam; CTX: Cefotaxime; FOX: Cefoxitin; CAZ: Ceftazidime; EFT: Ceftiofur; CRO: Ceftriaxone; CXM: Cefuroxime; C: Chloramphenicol; CT: Colistin; ENR: Enrofloxacin; E: erythromycin; CN: Gentamycin; K: Kanamycin; NA: Nalidixic Acid; P: Penicillin; G: RD Rifampin; SXT: Sulfamethoxazole/Trimethoprim; TE: Tetracycline; TGC: Tigecycline; I: Intermediate Resistance.Statistical analysis of Ζone of Ιnhibition (ZOI) and the tested concentrations of 5-15, 5-30 and 15-30 μl for the antimicrobial activity of oregano, rosemary and thyme oils against Salmonella spp.All EOs showed a statistical significance between the Ζone of Ιnhibition (ZOI) and the tested concentrations of 5-15, 5-30 and 15-30 μl (F=240,95, p<0,001 for oregano, F=188,592, p<0,001for thyme and F=15,79, p<0,001 for rosemary).Statistical analysis of Ζone of Ιnhibition (ZOI) and the tested concentrations of 5-15, 5-30 and 15-30 μl for the antimicrobial activity of oregano, rosemary and thyme oils against Salmonella spp.Repeated Measures ANOVA showed that the kind of the EO employed, affects significantly the width of ZOI (F=457,8, p<0,001) (Table 5).Repeated Measures ANOVA comparing in pairs the antimicrobial activity of oregano, rosemary and thyme oils against Salmonella spp.Analysis of one-way variance showed a statistical significance among Salmonella serovars and the effect of oregano, rosemary and thyme (Sig.=0.009, Sig.<0.001, Sig.<0.001, respectively).However, their excessive use in veterinary medicine during the past decades has led, due to selection pressures, to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria transmitted to humans through the food chain [57].The reported proportion [13,14,58-60] of Salmonella resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and chloramphenicol, antimicrobials considered as Highly Important for Human Health [61], is reflecting the extensive use of such agents in pig production in Greece and across Europe [62].as one of the most prevalent bacterial species causing food-borne disease and a major health threat due to fast developing antimicrobial resistance [61].The spreading of such resistant strains hampers the therapeutic possibilities of human Salmonella infections increasing the need of alternative treatments replacing commonly used antimicrobials in animal production.Thus, an increasing number of researchers give evidence of the EOs’ potential inhibitory activity against pathogens, such as Salmonella spp.[18,27], reporting them as ‘Generally Regarded As Safe’ (GRAS) for both animals and humans, because they do not promote antimicrobial resistance, as observed with the long-term use of synthetic antibiotics [66,67].In the present study, the evaluated EOs showed varying degrees of bactericidal ability against the tested Salmonella isolates at different treatment amounts.Oregano and thyme showed high inhibitory effect, even for the very small amount of 5 μl (Table 2 and 3) against all the salmonellae tested.The present findings, although in vitro, suggest that the tested ΕΟs rich in thymol and carvacrol could control a wide range of microbes, becoming potential alternatives to commonly used antimicrobials.By eliminating the use of drugs important for human medicine in animals, through the administration of EOs, the prevalence of resistant isolates could be reduced for the benefit of consumers.The present results add to the knowledge of previous studies, encouraging for more research into establishing EOs as reliable curative agents. .

Substitute for Thyme

Thyme is a pungent warm, woody spice related to mint and oregano.One of the oldest culinary herbs, it is a key ingredient in many Mediterranean and French cuisines.Substitutes for thyme range from similar fresh herbs such as oregano, marjoram and rosemary.Many blends can also be substituted as thyme is a key component for example: poultry seasoning, za’atar, and herbs de provence.Thyme is a fan favorite in chicken recipes due to the light flavor and noticeable aroma.Thyme has a strong herbal flavor with floral notes similar to what you’d find in lavender or rosemary.Thyme is a great spice to always have on hand because it elevates the flavors in many different types of dishes. .

The Best Simple Substitutes for Thyme

It also features in a lot of the recipes here at OE – it’s a major flavour note in this lentil potato stew and adds depth to vegan marinara, but it’s just as good with roasted vegetables and can be added to anything tomato based.Fresh or dried, oregano makes a great thyme substitute.You can use oregano for thyme in virtually any recipe, no matter what type of cuisine it is.Marjoram is very similar to oregano, and in turn, also very close to thyme, so it’s another excellent 1:1 substitute.Like oregano and marjoram, rosemary is part of the same family (Lamiaceae) as thyme, so it does have similar flavour notes.Out of all the herbs on this list, basil in the biggest stretch, but it can be an excellent thyme substitute in some circumstances!Dried basil is useless and shouldn’t be used, but fresh can take the place of thyme in any tomato based or Mediterranean dishes, like this chickpea quinoa salad. .

Best Oregano Substitute – A Couple Cooks

Don’t have any fresh or dried oregano on hand while you’re making a recipe?Making a recipe that calls for oregano and don’t have it?Oregano is a popular Mediterranean herb that’s most famously used in Italian pizza sauce.You’ll find when you add a pinch to a pizza or pasta sauce, your brain instantly recognizes the flavor.Oregano stars in cuisines like Mediterranean, Italian and Mexican recipes, and is used dried or fresh (though Mexican cuisine always uses the dried version).And of course, dried oregano is a must in any home cook’s spice cabinet!The best option for fresh oregano is to use dried if you have it on hand!Note that how these options work depend on the type of recipe and how the oregano is used.Here are some of our favorite recipes featuring fresh or dried oregano:. .

Oregano essential oil: 10 health benefits and how to use it

Whether a person applies it topically or takes an oral supplement, oregano oil may be helpful for a range of conditions.While oregano oil contains a significant amount, the compound thymol occurs most abundantly in thyme.Oregano oil contains high levels of important compounds in its leaves and smaller stems.Oil manufacturers dry the leaves and stems, then steam-distill the plant matter to extract as many compounds as possible.Some strains occur naturally in the body, but when the bacteria grow too quickly, it can cause bothersome symptoms.Taking oregano oil supplements or rubbing it on the skin may help a person make use of these antibacterial effects.The authors of a study in Frontiers in Microbiology found that a combination of oregano oil and silver nanoparticles effectively eliminated all the bacteria they tested.People with SIBO experience gastrointestinal problems due to an overgrowth of certain bacteria in their intestines.A 2014 study found that herbal remedies, including one that contained high levels of both carvacrol and thymol, were effective tools in treating SIBO.Exploring the individual effects of each compound will require more research, but these initial findings may be promising.Research from 2015 found thymol to be an effective treatment for common Candida fungal infections.The research was conducted in test tubes, however, and determining oregano oil’s effectiveness will require more studies in humans.Antioxidants help protect the body from damage caused by oxidative stress and free radicals.In one study on mice, the compound prevented obesity by affecting the genes involved in inflammation.While the results show promise, the researchers have called for more tests on humans to determine a safe dosage.Researchers have found that carvacrol, the main compound in oregano oil, disrupts part of the process that leads to the creation and accumulation of fat tissue.Much of the research in cancer comes from test tubes or animal models, so people should view the results with caution and never use oils as a replacement for medical treatment. .

Differences Between Oregano, Sweet Marjoram & Thyme Essential

By Kathy Sadowski, MS in Aromatherapy, RA (ARC), Professional NAHA and AIA Member, LMT.Further, marjoram is part of the Origanum (oregano) genus and there are an astonishing variety of chemotypes.With that being said, the most important information to research when identifying a bottle of essential oil from one of these species is its chemistry profile.Dried aerial parts are used to make the essential oil, which is mostly made up of carvacrol, with thymol, and monoterpenes.Sweet Marjoram (Origanum marjorana) is a perennial herb like oregano, with oval-shaped soft hairy leaves about a half inch long.Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) is a bushy evergreen shrub growing up to one foot tall.Its leaves are smaller than oregano and sweet marjoram, with a grey-green color, and tiny pale pink or purple flowers.There are over fifty plant species in the Origanum genus, including sweet marjoram (O. marjorana) and oregano (O. vulgare).Sweet Marjoram (Origanum marjorana) hasmultiple species with very different chemotypes.Sweet marjoram (O.

majorana) is typically high in monoterpenes, alcohols, and esters.It has about 30% terpinen-4-ol, plus sabinene, linalyl acetate, terpinenes, cymene, and a small amount of linalool.Oregano hasmultiple species, subspecies, and chemotypes, which are characteristically very high in carvacrol.Thymus mastichina has the confusing common name of Spanish marjoram, even though it is not in the Origanum genus.Thymus satureioides is high in borneol, carvacrol, beta terpineol, and thymol.Commonly called lemon thyme, Thymus citriodorus is high in geraniol, with carvacrol, geranial, neral, and other components.After reviewing the chemistry associated with the varieties of oregano, sweet marjoram, and thyme, we see certain chemical constituents repeatedly.Essential oils high in these constituents should be avoided with pregnant women, small children, and those with certain medical conditions.Monoterpenes are light in molecular weight and include: Terpinene, limonene, cymene, sabinene, and pinene.Gentle constituents with a calming, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-spasmodic, and antimicrobial effect include alcohols and esters such as: Linalool, terpinen-4-ol, borneol, geraniol, and geranyl acetate.Phenols are very reactive chemical constituents, and thus have a small therapeutic margin, with potential toxicity in excess or when used for prolonged periods.Essential oils high in carvacrol and thymol are potent antimicrobials, antioxidants, insecticidal, and have a stimulating effect:.On the flip side, camphor has demonstrated antimicrobial action in multiple studies, and may help with respiratory complaints and pain:.In one human study, participants with the common cold who inhaled a mixture of aromatic vapors of eucalyptus, menthol, camphor, experienced improved breathing.Cineole demonstrated good expectorant activity in a study of 386 patients with respiratory disease in an emergency room.Cineole may be effective as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent based on an in vivo study showing reduced rat paw inflammation and pain reactions.Cineole, citral, geraniol, linalool and menthol were tested against a variety of bacteria and fungi, showing a range of antimicrobial activity.12.Alcohols tend to have a low toxicity rating compared to other chemical constituents and are safer with children and those in fragile health.Based on all these chemistry variations, the best thing to do when purchasing and/or using a bottle of sweet marjoram, oregano, or thyme essential oil, is to first review a GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry) report.It is a report that lists the amounts of each chemical constituent found in a batch of essential oil.This helps you to understand the unique chemistry profile of the specific bottle of essential oil you are buying.A trained nose may also be able to distinguish some key aroma constituents in an essential oil.It might lower blood sugar levels and affect medications related to diabetes.20 drops of sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana ) OR thyme (Thymus ssp.).First, mix the dish soap, essential oils, and witch hazel or vodka together in an 8 oz. .

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