This Medical News Today Knowledge Center feature is part of a collection of articles on the health benefits of popular foods .Rosemary was traditionally used to help alleviate muscle pain, improve memory, boost the immune and circulatory system, and promote hair growth.Laboratory studies have shown rosemary to be rich in antioxidants, which play an important role in neutralizing harmful particles called free radicals.According to research outlined in Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology , the aroma from rosemary can improve a person’s concentration, performance, speed, and accuracy and, to a lesser extent, their mood.Research published in Oncology Reports found that “crude ethanolic rosemary extract (RO)” slowed the spread of human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells.”.Also, a report published in the Journal of Food Science revealed that adding rosemary extract to ground beef reduces the formation of cancer-causing agents that can develop during cooking.A study published in the journal Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, led by Dr. Stuart A. Lipton, Ph.D.

and colleagues at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, revealed that a carnosic acid, which is a major component of rosemary, can significantly promote eye health. .

Rosemary

Species of plant.Salvia rosmarinus, commonly known as rosemary, is a shrub with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple, or blue flowers, native to the Mediterranean region.Special cultivars like 'Arp' can withstand winter temperatures down to about −20 °C.The plant flowers in spring and summer in temperate climates, but the plants can be in constant bloom in warm climates; flowers are white, pink, purple or deep blue.[3] Rosemary also has a tendency to flower outside its normal flowering season; it has been known to flower as late as early December, and as early as mid-February (in the northern hemisphere).Salvia rosmarinus is now considered one of many hundreds of species in the genus Salvia.[2] Formerly it was placed in a much smaller genus, Rosmarinus, which contained only two to four species including R. officinalis,[10] which is now considered a synonym of S.

rosmarinus.History [ edit ].Rosemary came to England at an unknown date; the Romans probably brought it when they invaded in the first century, but there are no viable records about rosemary arriving in Britain until the 8th century CE.After this, rosemary is found in most English herbal texts, and is widely used for medicinal and culinary purposes.[20] Rosemary is used as a decorative plant in gardens.The leaves are used to flavor various foods, such as stuffing and roast meats.[3] It is considered easy to grow and pest-resistant.The groundcover cultivars spread widely, with a dense and durable texture.Cultivars [ edit ].'Albus' – white flowers.'Benenden Blue' – leaves narrow, dark green.'Haifa' – low and small, white flowers.'Pyramidalis' (or 'Erectus') – fastigate form, pale blue flowers.'Salem' – pale blue flowers, cold-hardy similar to 'Arp'.Dried leaves.Phytochemicals [ edit ].[32] Rosemary essential oil contains 10–20% camphor.Folklore and customs [ edit ].Rosemary was considered sacred to ancient Egyptians, Romans, and Greeks.In Australia, sprigs of rosemary are worn on ANZAC Day and sometimes Remembrance Day to signify remembrance; the herb grows wild on the Gallipoli Peninsula, where many Australians died during World War I. .

ROSEMARY: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions

Aggarwal, B.al Hader, A.A., Hasan, Z.al Sereiti, M. R., Abu-Amer, K.

M., and Sen, P. Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.).Indian J Exp Biol 1999;37(2):124-130.Angioni, A., Barra, A., Cereti, E., Barile, D., Coisson, J.

D., Arlorio, M., Dessi, S., Coroneo, V., and Cabras, P. chemical composition, plant genetic differences, antimicrobial and antifungal activity investigation of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. J Agric.Food Chem 6-2-2004;52(11):3530-3535.Aruoma, O.

I. Antioxidant actions of plant foods: use of oxidative DNA damage as a tool for studying antioxidant efficacy.Free Radic.Res 1999;30(6):419-427.Aruoma, O. I., Halliwell, B., Aeschbach, R., and Loligers, J.

Antioxidant and pro-oxidant properties of active rosemary constituents: carnosol and carnosic acid.Int J Aromatherapy 2004;14(4):179-182.Cheung, S. and Tai, J.

Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis.Plant Foods Hum.Nutr.Elgayyar, M., Draughon, F. A., Golden, D.

A., and Mount, J. R. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils from plants against selected pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms.Int J Food Sci Nutr 1999;50(6):413-427.Fu, Y., Zu, Y., Chen, L., Shi, X., Wang, Z., Sun, S., and Efferth, T. Antimicrobial activity of clove and rosemary essential oils alone and in combination.Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

using three different experimental models in rodents.Planta Med 11-16-2009; View abstract.Huang, M. T., Ho, C.

T., Wang, Z. Y., Ferraro, T., Lou, Y. R., Stauber, K., Ma, W., Georgiadis, C., Laskin, J.

D., and Conney, A. H. Inhibition of skin tumorigenesis by rosemary and its constituents carnosol and ursolic acid.Cancer Res 2-1-1994;54(3):701-708.Huang, S. C., Ho, C.

T., Lin-Shiau, S. Y., and Lin, J.

K. Carnosol inhibits the invasion of B16/F10 mouse melanoma cells by suppressing metalloproteinase-9 through down-regulating nuclear factor-kappa B and c-Jun.Biochem Pharmacol 1-15-2005;69(2):221-232.[The effects of aromatherapy on pain, depression, and life satisfaction of arthritis patients].Kosaka, K.

and Yokoi, T. Carnosic acid, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), promotes synthesis of nerve growth factor in T98G human glioblastoma cells.Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2006;15(1):107-118.Altern.Ther Health Med 2007;13(5):54-59.B., Pizzolatti, M.

G., and Rodrigues, A. L. Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: involvement of the monoaminergic system.Martinez, A.

L., Gonzalez-Trujano, M. E., Pellicer, F., Lopez-Munoz, F. J., and Navarrete, A.

Antinociceptive effect and GC/MS analysis of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil from its aerial parts.A.

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition.Muhlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., and Felix, R.

Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism.Int J Food Sci.Nutr 2008;59(7-8):691-698.Rau, O., Wurglics, M., Paulke, A., Zitzkowski, J., Meindl, N., Bock, A., Dingermann, T., Abdel-Tawab, M., and Schubert-Zsilavecz, M. Carnosic Acid and Carnosol, Phenolic Diterpene Compounds of the Labiate Herbs Rosemary and Sage, are Activators of the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma.Reichling, J., Nolkemper, S., Stintzing, F. C., and Schnitzler, P.

Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpesvirus infectivity in cell culture.Methods Find.Exp Clin Pharmacol 1989;11(5):345-352.Sancheti, G. and Goyal, P. K. Effect of rosmarinus officinalis in modulating 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.Sandasi, M., Leonard, C. M., and Viljoen, A. M.

The in vitro antibiofilm activity of selected culinary herbs and medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes.Scheckel, K. A., Degner, S. C., and Romagnolo, D. F. Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein-1-dependent activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell lines.Schwarz, K. and Ternes, W.

Antioxidative constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis.Shin, S. Anti-Aspergillus activities of plant essential oils and their combination effects with ketoconazole or amphotericin B. Arch Pharm Res 2003;26(5):389-393.Sotelo-Felix, J. I., Martinez-Fong, D., and Muriel, De la Torre.Protective effect of carnosol on CCl(4)-induced acute liver damage in rats.Sotelo-Felix, J.

I., Martinez-Fong, D., Muriel, P., Santillan, R. L., Castillo, D., and Yahuaca, P. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat.Nutr Cancer 2001;41(1-2):135-144.Takahashi, T., Tabuchi, T., Tamaki, Y., Kosaka, K., Takikawa, Y., and Satoh, T. Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells through induction of phase2 enzymes and activation of glutathione metabolism.Tamaki, Y., Tabuchi, T., Takahashi, T., Kosaka, K., and Satoh, T. Activated Glutathione Metabolism Participates in Protective Effects of Carnosic Acid against Oxidative Stress in Neuronal HT22 cells.Planta Med 11-25-2009; View abstract.Tantaoui-Elaraki, A. and Beraoud, L.

Inhibition of growth and aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus by essential oils of selected plant materials.J Int Med Res 2008;36(4):682-690.Yu, Y. M., Lin, H. C., and Chang, W. C. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.Zeng, H. H., Tu, P.

F., Zhou, K., Wang, H., Wang, B. H., and Lu, J. F.

Antioxidant properties of phenolic diterpenes from Rosmarinus officinalis.Zhao, B. L., Li, X.

J., He, R. G., Cheng, S.

J., and Xin, W. J.

Scavenging effect of extracts of green tea and natural antioxidants on active oxygen radicals.Food Res Int.Al Jamal A.Effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on lipid profiles and blood glucose in human diabetic patients (type-2).Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51.Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39(9):907-18.Effects of a water-soluble extract of rosemary and its purified component rosmarinic acid on xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver.Food Chem Toxicol 2001;39(2):109-17.Bioaccessibility and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes of carnosic acid in sage and rosemary.Int J Biol Macromol.Tyler's Honest Herbal, 4th ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.Randomized trial of aromatherapy.Kim MA, Sakong JK, Kim EJ, et al. [Effect of aromatherapy massage for the relief of constipation in the elderly].Lee JJ, Jin YR, Lee JH, et al. Antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid, a phenolic diterpene from Rosmarinus officinalis.J Med Food.Lukaczer D, Darland G, Tripp M, et al. A pilot trial evaluating Meta050, a proprietary combination of reduced iso-alpha acids, rosemary extract and oleanolic acid in patients with arthritis and fibromyalgia.Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.The effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on test-taking anxiety among graduate nursing students.Moss M, Cook J, Wesnes K, Duckett P. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults.Long-term intake of rosemary and common thyme herbs inhibits experimental thrombosis without prolongation of bleeding time.The effect of rosemary essential oil inhalation on sleepiness and alertness of shift-working nurses: A randomized, controlled field trial.Nematolahi P, Mehrabani M, Karami-Mohajeri S, Dabaghzadeh F. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students: A randomized clinical trial.Park, M. K.

and Lee, E. S.

[The effect of aroma inhalation method on stress responses of nursing students].J Med Food 2012;15:10.Pérez-Sánchez A, et al.Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damage in skin cell model and human volunteers.Quirarte-Báez SM, Zamora-Perez AL, Reyes-Estrada CA, et al. A shortened treatment with rosemary tea (rosmarinus officinalis) instead of glucose in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (TSD).J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol.Samman S, Sandstrom B, Toft MB, et al.

Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme-iron absorption.Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:607-12.Solhi H, et al.Beneficial effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for treatment of opium withdrawal syndrome during addiction treatment programs: a clinical trial.Tahoonian-Golkhatmy F, Abedian Z, Emami SA, Esmaily H. Comparison of rosemary and mefenamic acid capsules on menstrual bleeding and primary dysmenorrhea: A clinical trial.): A randomized controlled double-blind study.Yamamoto J, Yamada K, Naemura A, et al.

.

6 Benefits and Uses of Rosemary Tea

Due to its antioxidant capability, rosmarinic acid is often used as a natural preservative to increase the shelf life of perishable foods ( 6 , 7 ).SUMMARY Rosemary tea contains compounds that may help lower high blood sugar levels by exerting insulin-like effects and boosting the absorption of glucose into muscle cells.One study found that taking 500 mg of oral rosemary twice daily for 1 month significantly lowered anxiety levels and improved memory and sleep quality among college students, compared with a placebo ( 18 ).One study in 20 healthy young adults observed that inhaling rosemary aroma for 4–10 minutes before a mental test improved concentration, performance, and mood ( 20 ).What’s more, a study in 20 healthy adults found that inhaling rosemary oil stimulated brain activity and improved mood.Rosemary extract may improve mood by promoting a healthy balance of gut bacteria and reducing inflammation in the hippocampus, the part of your brain associated with emotions, learning, and memories ( 22 ).SUMMARY Consuming and inhaling compounds in rosemary have been shown to reduce anxiety, boost mood, and improve concentration and memory.SUMMARY Compounds in rosemary tea may protect the health of your brain — both from injury and impairment from aging and neurodegenerative diseases.Animal studies have found that adding rosemary extract to other oral treatments can slow the progression of age-related eye diseases (AREDs) ( 26 , 27 ).SUMMARY Rosemary tea may contain compounds that can help protect your vision as you age by slowing the progression and severity of diseases like cataracts and age-related macular degeneration.Still, rosemary is thought to support digestion by promoting a healthy balance of gut bacteria and reducing inflammation ( 31 , 32 ).Still, rosemary is thought to support digestion by promoting a healthy balance of gut bacteria and reducing inflammation ( , ).One animal study noted that rosemary prevented weight gain among rats, even those fed a high fat diet ( 33 ).One animal study noted that rosemary prevented weight gain among rats, even those fed a high fat diet ( ).If you’re taking any of these drugs — or other medications for similar purposes — it’s best to speak with your healthcare provider before adding rosemary tea to your diet.SUMMARY Rosemary may exert effects similar to those of certain drugs used to treat high blood pressure, increase urination, and improve circulation.Strain the rosemary leaves from the hot water using a mesh strainer with small holes, or remove them from the tea infuser. .

The Health Benefits of Rosemary

Rosemary is a rich source of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds, which are thought to help boost the immune system and improve blood circulation.The oil of rosemary has been known to promote hair growth prevent baldness, slow graying, and treat dandruff and dry scalp.Rosemary is often used for digestion problems, including heartburn, intestinal gas, liver and gallbladder complaints, and loss of appetite.The nutrients in rosemary help protect skin cells from damage often caused by the sun and free radicals. .

About Rosemary and Its Use in Cooking

In Greek mythology, it's said to have been draped around the Greek goddess Aphrodite when she rose from the sea.Whole sprigs of rosemary may be added to stews and meat dishes.Fresh rosemary will keep for about 1 week in the refrigerator.Garlic and Rosemary Butter.Add 1/2 teaspoon of finely chopped fresh rosemary leaves.Add 1 stick (4 ounces) of room temperature butter and mash with a fork until thoroughly blended.Rosemary and Garlic Pork Chops. .

How to Grow Rosemary Plants

Space rosemary plants 2 to 3 feet apart in an area with abundant sunlight and rich, well-drained soil with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0.Before planting, set your garden up for success by mixing in several inches of aged compost or other rich organic matter into your native soil.Promote spectacular growth by feeding rosemary regularly with a water-soluble plant food.Harvest rosemary stems by snipping them with sharp gardening shears. .

rosemary

rosemary, (Salvia rosmarinus), small evergreen plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae), the leaves of which are used to flavour foods.Native to the Mediterranean region, rosemary has naturalized throughout much of Europe and is widely grown in gardens in warm climates.The leaves have a pungent, slightly bitter taste and, dried or fresh, are generally used to season foods, particularly lamb, duck, chicken, sausages, seafood, stuffings, stews, soups, potatoes, tomatoes, turnips, and other vegetables, as well as beverages.History and uses Learn about the culinary use of rosemary and the benefits of its essential oils Overview of the fragrant, flavourful herb rosemary. .

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