Adams, M., Gmunder, F., and Hamburger, M. Plants traditionally used in age related brain disorders--a survey of ethnobotanical literature.Aherne, S. A., Kerry, J. P., and O'Brien, N.

M. Effects of plant extracts on antioxidant status and oxidant-induced stress in Caco-2 cells.Baricevic, D., Sosa, S., Della, Loggia R., Tubaro, A., Simonovska, B., Krasna, A., and Zupancic, A. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L.

leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid.Bisset, N. G. Max Wichtl Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis.De, Leo, V, Lanzetta, D., Cazzavacca, R., and Morgante, G.

[Treatment of neurovegetative menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent].Feres, M., Figueiredo, L. C., Barreto, I.

M., Coelho, M. H., Araujo, M. W., and Cortelli, S.

C. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and propolis in saliva samples of healthy and periodontally-involved subjects.Fortes, C., Forastiere, F., Farchi, S., Mallone, S., Trequattrinni, T., Anatra, F., Schmid, G., and Perucci, C. A.Futrell, J. M.

and Rietschel, R. L.

Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests.Geuenich, S., Goffinet, C., Venzke, S., Nolkemper, S., Baumann, I., Plinkert, P., Reichling, J., and Keppler, O. T. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density.Guaschino, S. and Benvenuti, C. SOPHY project: an observational study of vaginal pH, lifestyle and correct intimate hygiene in women of different ages and in different physiopathological conditions.Halicioglu, O., Astarcioglu, G., Yaprak, I., and Aydinlioglu, H. Toxicity of Salvia officinalis in a newborn and a child: an alarming report.Hayouni, el A., Chraief, I., Abedrabba, M., Bouix, M., Leveau, J.

Y., Mohammed, H., and Hamdi, M. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L.

and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat.Hellum, B. H. and Nilsen, O.

G. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by trade herbal products.Hold, K. M., Sirisoma, N. S., Ikeda, T., Narahashi, T., and Casida, J. E. Alpha-thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification.Horiuchi, K., Shiota, S., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., Kuroda, T., and Tsuchiya, T.

Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinalis and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).Horiuchi, K., Shiota, S., Kuroda, T., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., and Tsuchiya, T. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of aminoglycosides by carnosol from Salvia officinalis.Hubbert, M., Sievers, H., Lehnfeld, R., and Kehrl, W.

Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis - a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis.The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity.Jedinak, A., Muckova, M., Kost'alova, D., Maliar, T., and Masterova, I. Antiprotease and antimetastatic activity of ursolic acid isolated from Salvia officinalis.Juhas, S., Cikos, S., Czikkova, S., Vesela, J., Il'kova, G., Hajek, T., Domaracka, K., Domaracky, M., Bujnakova, D., Rehak, P., and Koppel, J.Kavvadias, D., Monschein, V., Sand, P., Riederer, P., and Schreier, P.

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.B., and Haskell, C. F.

Monoterpenoid extract of sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) with cholinesterase inhibiting properties improves cognitive performance and mood in healthy adults.Effects of cholinesterase inhibiting sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery.Kianbakht, S., Abasi, B., Perham, M., and Hashem, Dabaghian F. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.Konishi, Y., Hitomi, Y., Yoshida, M., and Yoshioka, E.

Pharmacokinetic study of caffeic and rosmarinic acids in rats after oral administration.Kwon, Y. I., Vattem, D. A., and Shetty, K.

Evaluation of clonal herbs of Lamiaceae species for management of diabetes and hypertension.Comparison of benzydamine hydrochloride and Salvia officinalis as an adjuvant local treatment to systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in controlling pain after tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both: An open-label, single-blind, randomized clinical trial.Lima, C. F., Andrade, P. B., Seabra, R. M., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C.

The drinking of a Salvia officinalis infusion improves liver antioxidant status in mice and rats.Lima, C. F., Azevedo, M.

F., Araujo, R., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Metformin-like effect of Salvia officinalis (common sage): is it useful in diabetes prevention?Lima, C. F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C.

Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.Lima, C. F., Valentao, P. C., Andrade, P.

B., Seabra, R. M., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C.

Water and methanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis protect HepG2 cells from t-BHP induced oxidative damage.Failure of anti-infective mouth rinses and concomitant antibiotic prophylaxis to decrease oral mucosal colonization in autologous stem cell transplantation.Masuda, T., Inaba, Y., and Takeda, Y. Antioxidant mechanism of carnosic acid: structural identification of two oxidation products.Mayer, B., Baggio, C.

H., Freitas, C. S., dos Santos, A. C., Twardowschy, A., Horst, H., Pizzolatti, M. G., Micke, G.

A., Heller, M., dos Santos, E. P., Otuki, M. F., and Marques, M.

C. Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L.

Fitoterapia 2009;80(7):421-426.Mayer, E., Gescheidt-Shoshany, H., and Weltfriend, S. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Salvia officinalis extract.[The antistaphylococcal properties of plant extracts in relation to their prospective use as therapeutic and prophylactic formulations for the skin].Muhlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., and Felix, R. Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism.Nolkemper, S., Reichling, J., Stintzing, F. C., Carle, R., and Schnitzler, P. Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro.O'Mahony, R., Al Khtheeri, H., Weerasekera, D., Fernando, N., Vaira, D., Holton, J., and Basset, C.

Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori.Oboh, G. and Henle, T. Antioxidant and inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves on pro-oxidant-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver in vitro.Oniga, I., Parvu, A.

E., Toiu, A., and Benedec, D. Effects of Salvia officinalis L. extract on experimental acute inflammation.Orhan, I. and Aslan, M.

Appraisal of scopolamine-induced antiamnesic effect in mice and in vitro antiacetylcholinesterase and antioxidant activities of some traditionally used Lamiaceae plants.Osawa, K., Matsumoto, T., Yasuda, H., Kato, T., Naito, Y., and Okuda, K. The inhibitory effect of plant extracts on the collagenolytic activity and cytotoxicity of human gingival fibroblasts by Porphyromonas gingivalis crude enzyme.Pavlenko, L. V., Mashkovskii, N.

N., and Smirnov, V. V. [Effect of salvin on the incorporation of labeled precursors into macromolecular compounds of Staphylococcus aureus 209P].Pavlenko, L.

V., Stepaniuk, V. V., Volosovets, P. S., and Smirnov, V. V.

[The effect of salvin on the growth and ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus 209P].Pereira, P., Tysca, D., Oliveira, P., da Silva Brum, L. F., Picada, J. N., and Ardenghi, P. Neurobehavioral and genotoxic aspects of rosmarinic acid.Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?Perry, N. S., Houghton, P. J., Sampson, J., Theobald, A.

E., Hart, S., Lis-Balchin, M., Hoult, J. R., Evans, P., Jenner, P., Milligan, S., and Perry, E.

K. In-vitro activity of S. lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) relevant to treatment of Alzheimer's disease.Poeckel, D., Greiner, C., Verhoff, M., Rau, O., Tausch, L., Hornig, C., Steinhilber, D., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Werz, O.

Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.A., Foo, L. Y., Lu, Y., Kiderlen, A.

F., and Kolodziej, H. Evaluation of sage phenolics for their antileishmanial activity and modulatory effects on interleukin-6, interferon and tumour necrosis factor-alpha-release in RAW 264.7 cells.Rau, O., Wurglics, M., Paulke, A., Zitzkowski, J., Meindl, N., Bock, A., Dingermann, T., Abdel-Tawab, M., and Schubert-Zsilavecz, M.

Carnosic Acid and Carnosol, Phenolic Diterpene Compounds of the Labiate Herbs Rosemary and Sage, are Activators of the Human Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma.Reuter, J., Jocher, A., Hornstein, S., Monting, J. S., and Schempp, C.

M. Sage extract rich in phenolic diterpenes inhibits ultraviolet-induced erythema in vivo.A., Azevedo, M. F., Lima, C.

F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Sage tea drinking improves lipid profile and antioxidant defences in humans.Santos-Gomes, P.

C. and Fernandes-Ferreira, M. Organ- and season-dependent variation in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L.

cultivated at two different sites.Savelev, S. U., Okello, E.

J., and Perry, E. K. Butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities in essential oils of Salvia species and their constituents.Comparative in vitro study on the anti-herpetic effect of phytochemically characterized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis grown at two different locations.An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention in healthy older volunteers.Sertoli, A., Fabbri, P., Campolmi, P., and Panconesi, E. Allergic contact dermatitis to Salvia Officinalis, Inula Viscosa and Conyza Bonariensis.Sterer, N., Nuas, S., Mizrahi, B., Goldenberg, C., Weiss, E. I., Domb, A., and Davidi, M. P.

Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation.Positive modulation of mood and cognitive performance following administration of acute doses of Salvia lavandulaefolia essential oil to healthy young volunteers.Vujosevic, M. and Blagojevic, J. Antimutagenic effects of extracts from sage (Salvia officinalis) in mammalian system in vivo.Wake, G., Court, J., Pickering, A., Lewis, R., Wilkins, R., and Perry, E.

CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory.Wu, T. Y., Chen, C. P., and Jinn, T.

R. Traditional Chinese medicines and Alzheimer's disease.Yu, Y.

M., Lin, H. C., and Chang, W.

C. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.Zuskin, E., Kanceljak, B., Skuric, Z., and Ivankovic, D.

Immunological and respiratory changes in tea workers.Zuskin, E., Kanceljak, B., Witek, T. J., Jr., and Schachter, E.

N. Acute effects of herbal tea dust extracts on lung function.Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al.

Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Aguirre-Garcia F. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.Amini L, Mojab F, Jahanfar S, Sepidarkish M, Raoofi Z, Maleki-Hajiagha A. Efficacy of Salvia officinalis extract on the prevention of insulin resistance in euglycemic patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: A double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial.First time proof of sage's tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes.Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T.

Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem.Buto SK, Tsang TK, Sielaff GW, et al. Bay leaf impaction in the esophagus and hypopharynx.In vitro inhibition of human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of marker substrates by natural products.The in vitro inhibitory potential of trade herbal products on human CYP2D6-mediated metabolism and the influence of ethanol.Jünger H, Jaun-Ventrice A, Guldener K, Ramseier CA, Reissmann DR, Schimmel M.

Anti-inflammatory potential of an essential oil-containing mouthwash in elderly subjects enrolled in supportive periodontal therapy: a 6-week randomised controlled clinical trial.Improved glycemic control and lipid profile in hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic patients consuming Salvia officinalis L. leaf extract: a randomized placebo.Systematic review of clinical trials assessing pharmacological properties of Salvia species on memory, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.Monsen RE, Herlofson BB, Gay C, et al. A mouth rinse based on a tea solution of Salvia officinalis for oral discomfort in palliative cancer care: a randomized controlled trial.Essential oils from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis l.): variations among individuals, plant parts, seasons, and sites.Pierre F, et al.

Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduced the occurrence of colon tumors and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice.Saller R, Buechi S, Meyrat R, Schmidhauser C. Combined herbal preparation for topical treatment of Herpes labialis.Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, et al. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial.Tildesley NT, Kennedy DO, Perry EK, et al.

Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers.Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Salvia officinalis in controlling hot flashes in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen deprivation.Wightman EL, Jackson PA, Spittlehouse B, Heffernan T, Guillemet D, Kennedy DO.The acute and chronic cognitive effects of a sage extract: A randomized, placebo controlled study in healthy humans.Effectiveness of Menosan® Salvia officinalis in the treatment of a wide spectrum of menopausal complaints.Zeidabadi A, Yazdanpanahi Z, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Sasani MR, Emamghoreishi M, Akbarzadeh M. The effect of Salvia officinalis extract on symptoms of flushing, night sweat, sleep disorders, and score of forgetfulness in postmenopausal women.

.

11 Benefits of Burning Sage, How to Smudge, and More

Beliefs that burning sage clears out spiritual impurities, pathogens, and even insects have been fundamental to the practice of smudging.It may help relieve the symptoms of some conditions It turns out that sage may help clear the air of lots more than bugs and bacteria.Though scientifically unproven, burning sage is thought to release negative ions.mold If this is the case, burning sage may be a blessing for those with asthma, allergies, bronchitis, and other respiratory conditions.For healers and laypeople in traditional cultures, burning sage is used to achieve a healing state — or to solve or reflect upon spiritual dilemmas.This includes past traumas, bad experiences, or negative energies from others.Choosing to sit and let go of negative thoughts in a ritual like this sets your intention and dedication to self-improvement.It can cleanse or empower specific objects Burning sage creates fragrant smoke central to smudging’s benefits.It may help improve your mood Tradition suggests that smudging can literally lift one’s spirits to banish negativity.A 2014 study documented white prairie sage (also known as estafiate) as an important traditional remedy for treating anxiety, depression, and mood disorders in certain cultures.A 2016 research project for the University of Mississippi established that white sage (Salvia apiana) is rich in compounds that activate certain receptors in the brain.These receptors are responsible for elevating mood levels, reducing stress, and even alleviating pain.A 2016 review of studies noted that evidence for Salvia’s cognitive-enhancing benefits are promising — perhaps to treat dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.Some sagelike species closely related to white prairie sage are also used for smudging.It can create an uplifting fragrance For some, this may be the best of all benefits: Sage is a lovely incense with a divine aroma, pure and simple.What you need The practice of burning sage or smudging is fairly simple, with few necessary tools.some recommend a seashell or bowl of ceramic, clay, or glass to hold burning sage or capture ash.other Artemisia species To support and respect the cultures that developed the practice, purchase sage from native gatherers, crafters, and artists.Some believe smoke also takes impurities and negative energy with it — so don’t skip this step.Some recommend working in a clockwise direction around your home, ending back where you started, especially for spiritual purposes.This can be done to a new item, such as jewelry, furniture, or clothing, to protect or dispel it of negative energy.Aromatherapy You can also light and burn sage to improve odor, fragrance, and mood.When done correctly and respectfully, smudging is completely safe and the effects last after the smoke clears.People with asthma and other respiratory conditions may be more sensitive to the smoke and have adverse reactions. .

Sage: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions

Abdel-Fatah, M. K., El-Hawa, M.

A., Samia, E. M., Rabie, G., and Amer, A.

M. Antimicrobial activities of some local medicinal plants.Adams, M., Gmunder, F., and Hamburger, M. Plants traditionally used in age related brain disorders--a survey of ethnobotanical literature.Aherne, S.

A., Kerry, J. P., and O'Brien, N.

M. Effects of plant extracts on antioxidant status and oxidant-induced stress in Caco-2 cells.Anackov, G., Bozin, B., Zoric, L., Vukov, D., Mimica-Dukic, N., Merkulov, L., Igic, R., Jovanovic, M., and Boza, P.

Chemical composition of essential oil and leaf anatomy of Salvia bertolonii Vis.In vitro susceptibility of the Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori to extracts of Iranian medicinal plants.Bailly, F., Queffelec, C., Mbemba, G., Mouscadet, J. F., and Cotelle, P. Synthesis and HIV-1 integrase inhibitory activities of caffeic acid dimers derived from Salvia officinalis.Baricevic, D., Sosa, S., Della, Loggia R., Tubaro, A., Simonovska, B., Krasna, A., and Zupancic, A.

Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid.Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L. J Agric.Food Chem.Bisset, N. G.

Max Wichtl Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis.Boszormenyi, A., Hethelyi, E., Farkas, A., Horvath, G., Papp, N., Lemberkovics, E., and Szoke, E. Chemical and genetic relationships among sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) cultivars and Judean sage ( Salvia judaica Boiss.).Bouaziz, M., Yangui, T., Sayadi, S., and Dhouib, A. Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.

cultivated in Tunisia.Brieskorn, C. H.

and Kapadia, Z. Bestandteile von Salvia officinalis XXIV: Triterpenalkohole, Triterpensauren und Pristan im Blatt von Salvia officinalis L. Planta Med 1980;38:86-90.Burgar, M.

I., Karba, D., and Kikelj, D. 13 C NMR analysis of essential oil of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis).Capek, P.

and Hribalova, V. Water-soluble polysaccharides from Salvia officinalis L.

possessing immunomodulatory activity.Capek, P., Machova, E., and Turjan, J. Scavenging and antioxidant activities of immunomodulating polysaccharides isolated from Salvia officinalis L.

Int J Biol.Macromol.Carrasco, F. R., Schmidt, G., Romero, A.

L., Sartoretto, J. L., Caparroz-Assef, S. M., Bersani-Amado, C.

A., and Cuman, R. K. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L.

and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses.Determination of chemopreventive role of Foeniculum vulgare and Salvia officinalis infusion on trichloroacetic acid-induced increased serum marker enzymes lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense systems in rats.Croteau, R.

and Purkett, P. T. Geranyl pyrophosphate synthase: characterization of the enzyme and evidence that this chain-length specific prenyltransferase is associated with monoterpene biosynthesis in sage (Salvia officinalis).Stereochemical implications of acyclic and monocyclic olefin formation by (+)- and (-)-pinene cyclases from sage.Croteau, R. B., Wheeler, C. J., Cane, D. E., Ebert, R., and Ha, H.

J. Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate.Croteau, R., El-Bialy, H., and El-Hindawi, S. Metabolism of monoterpenes: lactonization of (+)-camphor and conversion of the corresponding hydroxyl acid to the glucoside-glucose ester in sage (Salvia officinalis).Croteau, R., Felton, M., Karp, F., and Kjonaas, R.

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis).Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E.

Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.The role of natural products in the discovery of new drug candidates for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders II: Alzheimer's disease.De, Leo, V, Lanzetta, D., Cazzavacca, R., and Morgante, G. [Treatment of neurovegetative menopausal symptoms with a phytotherapeutic agent].Dehal, S.

S. and Croteau, R.

Metabolism of monoterpenes: specificity of the dehydrogenases responsible for the biosynthesis of camphor, 3-thujone, and 3-isothujone.Dehal, S. S. and Croteau, R. Partial purification and characterization of two sesquiterpene cyclases from sage (Salvia officinalis) which catalyze the respective conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to humulene and caryophyllene.Demo, A., Petrakis, C., Kefalas, P., and Boskou, D.

Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and Mediterranean plant leaves.Dragland, S., Senoo, H., Wake, K., Holte, K., and Blomhoff, R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants.Dudai, N., Lewinsohn, E., Larkov, O., Katzir, I., Ravid, U., Chaimovitsh, D., Sa'adi, D., and Putievsky, E. Dynamics of yield components and essential oil production in a commercial hybrid sage (Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa cv.Ebringerova, A., Kardosova, A., Hromadkova, Z., and Hribalova, V. Mitogenic and comitogenic activities of polysaccharides from some European herbaceous plants.Seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oil extract of east mediterranean sage (Salvia libanotica) and its toxicity in mice.Feres, M., Figueiredo, L.

C., Barreto, I. M., Coelho, M. H., Araujo, M. W., and Cortelli, S.

C. In vitro antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and propolis in saliva samples of healthy and periodontally-involved subjects.Ferreira, A., Proenca, C., Serralheiro, M.

L., and Araujo, M. E. The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal.Fortes, C., Forastiere, F., Farchi, S., Mallone, S., Trequattrinni, T., Anatra, F., Schmid, G., and Perucci, C.

A.Funk, C. and Croteau, R.

Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).Funk, C., Koepp, A. E., and Croteau, R.

Catabolism of camphor in tissue cultures and leaf disks of common sage (Salvia officinalis).Futrell, J. M.

and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests.Gambliel, H.

and Croteau, R. Biosynthesis of (+/-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene from geranyl pyrophosphate by a soluble enzyme system from sage (Salvia officinalis).Geuenich, S., Goffinet, C., Venzke, S., Nolkemper, S., Baumann, I., Plinkert, P., Reichling, J., and Keppler, O. T. Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density.Grzunov, K., Mastelic, J., and Ruzic, N. Identification of aglycones of b-D-glucosides from the leaves of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis).Guaschino, S. and Benvenuti, C.

SOPHY project: an observational study of vaginal pH, lifestyle and correct intimate hygiene in women of different ages and in different physiopathological conditions.Halicioglu, O., Astarcioglu, G., Yaprak, I., and Aydinlioglu, H. Toxicity of Salvia officinalis in a newborn and a child: an alarming report.Hannah, K., Day, A., O'Neill, S., Patterson, C., and Lyons-Wall, P. Does scientific evidence support the use of non-prescription supplements for treatment of acute menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes?Hayouni, el A., Chraief, I., Abedrabba, M., Bouix, M., Leveau, J. Y., Mohammed, H., and Hamdi, M.

Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat.Hellum, B.

H. and Nilsen, O.

G. In vitro inhibition of CYP3A4 metabolism and P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by trade herbal products.Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I., and Janicsak, G.

Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation.Hold, K. M., Sirisoma, N.

S., Ikeda, T., Narahashi, T., and Casida, J. E. Alpha-thujone (the active component of absinthe): gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor modulation and metabolic detoxification.Horiuchi, K., Shiota, S., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., Kuroda, T., and Tsuchiya, T.

Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinalis and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE).Horiuchi, K., Shiota, S., Kuroda, T., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., and Tsuchiya, T. Potentiation of antimicrobial activity of aminoglycosides by carnosol from Salvia officinalis.Hromadkova, Z., Ebringerova, A., and Valachovic, P. Comparison of classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Salvia officinalis L.

Ultrason.Sonochem.Hubbert, M., Sievers, H., Lehnfeld, R., and Kehrl, W. Efficacy and tolerability of a spray with Salvia officinalis in the treatment of acute pharyngitis - a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with adaptive design and interim analysis.The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity.Gas chromatographic examination of volatile oil from Salvia officinalis L. Acta Pharm Jugosl 1978;28:65-69.B., and Hassan, T.

H. Performance of phytochemical antioxidant systems in refined-bleached-deodorized palm olein during frying.Jedinak, A., Muckova, M., Kost'alova, D., Maliar, T., and Masterova, I.

Antiprotease and antimetastatic activity of ursolic acid isolated from Salvia officinalis.A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).Juhas, S., Cikos, S., Czikkova, S., Vesela, J., Il'kova, G., Hajek, T., Domaracka, K., Domaracky, M., Bujnakova, D., Rehak, P., and Koppel, J.Karp, F., Harris, J. L., and Croteau, R. Metabolism of monoterpenes: demonstration of the hydroxylation of (+)-sabinene to (+)-cis-sabinol by an enzyme preparation from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.Kavvadias, D., Monschein, V., Sand, P., Riederer, P., and Schreier, P. Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.Kedzia, B., Segiet-Kujawa, E., Holderna, E., and Krzyzaniak, M. Chemical content and antimicroorganism activity of sage essential oil (Ol.Kennedy, D. O.

and Wightman, E. L.

Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function.B., and Haskell, C. F.

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cultivated at two different sites.Santos-Gomes, P. C., Seabra, R. M., Andrade, P. B., and Fernandes-Ferreira, M. Determination of phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by calli and cell suspensions of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).Savelev, S. U., Okello, E.

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Butyryl- and acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities in essential oils of Salvia species and their constituents.Schimmer, O., Kruger, A., Paulini, H., and Haefele, F. An evaluation of 55 commercial plant extracts in the Ames mutagenicity text.Schmidt, Z., Pekic, B., and Karuza-Stojakovic, L.

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Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging effects of diterpenoid quinones from the roots of Salvia officinalis L. on colonic and hepatic human cells cultured in vitro.Smit, Z., Pekic, B., and Karuza-Stojakovic, L.

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Protonophoric and uncoupling activity of royleanones from Salvia officinalis and euvimals from Eucalyptus viminalis.Effect of various natural medicinals on salivary protein putrefaction and malodor production.Sterer, N., Nuas, S., Mizrahi, B., Goldenberg, C., Weiss, E. I., Domb, A., and Davidi, M.

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Antimutagenic effect of essential oil of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and its monoterpenes against UV-induced mutations in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.Wake, G., Court, J., Pickering, A., Lewis, R., Wilkins, R., and Perry, E. CNS acetylcholine receptor activity in European medicinal plants traditionally used to improve failing memory.Wang, M., Kikuzaki, H., Zhu, N., Sang, S., Nakatani, N., and Ho, C. T.

Isolation and structural elucidation of two new glycosides from sage (Salvia officinalis L.).Wang, M., Shao, Y., Li, J., Zhu, N., Rangarajan, M., LaVoie, E. J., and Ho, C-T.

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L., Urbansky, M., Coates, R. M., Croteau, R.

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L., Savage, T. J., Katahira, E., and Croteau, R.

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F., Fernandes-Ferreira, M., and Pereira-Wilson, C. Salvia fruticosa, Salvia officinalis, and rosmarinic acid induce apoptosis and inhibit proliferation of human colorectal cell lines: the role in MAPK/ERK pathway.Yu, Y.

M., Lin, H. C., and Chang, W. C. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.Influence of the keratin bark urea granulated mass on the herb crop and on the content of the essential oil in medicinal plants.Zani, F., Massimo, G., Benvenuti, S., Bianchi, A., Albasini, A., Melegari, M., Vampa, G., Bellotti, A., and Mazza, P.

Studies on the genotoxic properties of essential oils with Bacillus subtilis rec-assay and Salmonella/microsome reversion assay.Zimna, D., Grzybowski, J., and Piekos, R. Extraction of some essential elements from the leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).Zupko, I., Hohmann, J., Redei, D., Falkay, G., Janicsak, G., and Mathe, I. Antioxidant activity of leaves of Salvia species in enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent systems of lipid peroxidation and their phenolic constituents.Zuskin, E., Kanceljak, B., Skuric, Z., and Ivankovic, D.

Immunological and respiratory changes in tea workers.Zuskin, E., Kanceljak, B., Witek, T. J., Jr., and Schachter, E.

N. Acute effects of herbal tea dust extracts on lung function.Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, et al. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial.Alarcon-Aguilar FJ, Roman-Ramos R, Flores-Saenz JL, Aguirre-Garcia F.

Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.First time proof of sage's tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flushes.Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro.Burkhard PR, Burkhardt K, Haenggeli CA, Landis T. Plant-induced seizures: reappearance of an old problem.Buto SK, Tsang TK, Sielaff GW, et al.

Bay leaf impaction in the esophagus and hypopharynx.Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN, Polissiou MG. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on Penicillium digitatum.In vitro inhibition of human cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of marker substrates by natural products.The in vitro inhibitory potential of trade herbal products on human CYP2D6-mediated metabolism and the influence of ethanol.Essential oils from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis l.): variations among individuals, plant parts, seasons, and sites.Pierre F, et al. Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduced the occurrence of colon tumors and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Min mice.Saller R, Buechi S, Meyrat R, Schmidhauser C.

Combined herbal preparation for topical treatment of Herpes labialis.Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, et al. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial.Tildesley NT, Kennedy DO, Perry EK, et al. Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish Sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers. .

3 Essential Oils for Better Sleep

If you don’t want to use over-the-counter and prescription medications, an essential oil is just one type of all-natural sleep aid you can choose.What the research says In general, essential oils can have many different benefits, such as weakening certain viruses and strengthening the immune system to soothing feelings of anxiety.blue chamomile flower Sometimes, Outten pairs the Balance blend with lavender essential oil.Researchers in a 2013 study found that when the oil was used in a diffuser, it helped women undergoing urodynamic examination relax more effectively.For example, doTERRA recommends applying Balance to the soles of your feet, wrists, or palms at the beginning and end of the day to help you feel calm and relaxed.If you prefer not to leave your diffuser running, you may consider adding a few drops of essential oil to your pillowcase shortly before bedtime.Dilute your chosen oil and apply the mixture to a quarter-sized amount of skin to do a patch test.Try to eat earlier in the evening, especially if you have a medical condition that interferes with your sleep, such as acid reflux.This can signal to your brain that it’s time to wind down and help set your body into sleep mode.They can work with you to determine what’s causing your poor sleep and recommend the regimen or treatment option that’s best suited for you. .

Essential Oils to Help You Get More Sleep

Aromatherapy involves inhaling essential oil scents or vapor in hopes of obtaining positive health effects.This essential oil calms the nervous system, primarily due to the chemical compounds linalool and linalyl acetate found within it.Lavender can be put on a pillow to be inhaled during the night or combined with other oils and used for massage, as it is easily absorbed by the skin.Bergamot is a fragrant herb native to North America, often grown to attract pollinators such as bees and butterflies.When bergamot essential oil is experienced as aromatherapy, it may lower blood pressure and improve mental health.Another study of people in cardiac rehabilitation found that sleep quality significantly increased after exposure to an aromatherapy mixture of bergamot, lavender, and ylang-ylang.This blend reduced anxiety and improved sleep quality in a study of patients staying in an intensive care unit.If you enjoy woodsy scents, consider incorporating cedarwood essential oil as you create your ideal bedroom for sleep.Cedrol had a sedative effect across groups, even though women in different countries had different baseline levels of anxiety and average sleep times.In one study, clary sage oil inhalation appeared to reduce stress in medical patients by lowering their blood pressure and respiratory rate.If anxiety interferes with your ability to sleep and you enjoy the smell of herbs, clary sage oil might be a good option for you. .

Could sage cleansing help you get a better night's sleep?

Not only do we drop off better when we’re less stressed and have spent time practising mindfulness – as seen with the effects of anxiety-soothing yoga poses and podcasts before bed – breathing purer air also helps us avoid illness. .

Why does Thanksgiving dinner make you sleepy?

When you eat carbohydrates, the pancreas releases insulin, and one effect of that is to lower the levels of all the large amino acids in your blood -- except for tryptophan.You have relatively high levels of tryptophan in your blood, and in your brain that's converted into the neurotransmitter serotonin, and that can make you sleepy.(We shouldn't forget, of course, that eating more than you're used to in a sitting -- and giving your system more digestive work to do than it's used to -- might account for a good bit of the fatigue.).[E]ating protein has the opposite effect from eating carbohydrates -- it raises the blood levels of all large amino acids.Let's pull back a moment to get clear on the tryptophan theory of needing a nap between dinner and dessert.If the article got the scientific story right, it's the former -- so boosting non-tryptophan large amino acids would counteract the yawns, as would taking in less tryptophan.(I'm guessing maybe the tryptophan-uptake apparatus is sampling from the available large amino acids, which would mean whatever the absolute level of tryptophan coursing through your veins, a high relative level of tryptophan (compared to the other amino acids in the mix) is going to trip the "boy are you sleepy!".In any case, this whole discussion seems like a perfect opportunity to conduct some citizen science (and, come Friday, to collect some reports from the field).Depending on the vibe at your Thanksgiving table, you can either ask the diners to keep track of what kinds of foods they eat, or you can assign your guests particular consumption objectives.Of course, if you track participant input a bit more precisely, maybe we'll stumble upon some other factor that turns out to be important, like vitamin A or sage. .

5 Foods That Help You Sleep – Cleveland Clinic

Advertising Policy Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center.Food relates directly to serotonin, a key hormone that — along with Vitamin B6, B12, and folic acid — helps promote healthy sleep.Try to consume foods that calm the body, increase serotonin levels and get you ready for restful sleep.Avoid simple carbohydrates, including breads, pasta and sweets such as cookies, cakes, pastries and other sugary foods.Lean proteins include low-fat cheese, chicken, turkey and fish.These foods are high in the amino acid tryptophan, which tends to increase serotonin levels.Unsaturated fats will not only boost your heart health but also improve your serotonin levels.A good, soothing beverage to drink before bedtime would be warm milk (your mother was right) or herbal tea such as chamomile or peppermint.For example, sage and basil contain chemicals that reduce tension and promote sleep. .

6 Natural Herbs That Can Help You Fall Asleep Faster

As long as it’s dark and quiet, and I can lie down horizontally, I can fall asleep fairly easily and echo Gwyneth Paltrow in proclaiming that my least favorite part of each day is waking up in the morning.Beyond melatonin (the supplement most commonly associated with sleep), there are plenty of natural herbs out there that are scientifically proven to help you stop tossing and turning and start dreaming of Brad and Angelina’s reconciliation (#stillreeling).Whether you struggle with sleep on a nightly basis or just find that it escapes you at the worst possible moment, as I do, there’s an option for you ahead. .

I Smudged My Home For 30 Days. Here's What Happened

Last year, a sacred Native American ceremony of smoke cleansing suddenly plugged into the masses.People claim it can help fight depression, purify the air, make you sleep like a baby, and clean your space of negative energy.I tried to explore whether the practice of cleaning your space with smoke lives up to all the hype by smudging my home for 30 days.It’s a pretty darn task to make me fall for the woo-woo, juju stuff that using a crystal will heal my broken heart or attract more money into my life.So it would be hard to persuade me that burning some herb can make me happier or boost my cognition.I don’t fall for the BS that eating tofu and cherries helps open the sacral chakra.But I believe that visualizing and focusing my attention on the chakra can help me solve some emotional problems I might be struggling with.To cut a long story short, I’ve been feeling overwhelmed and emotionally down for the last couple of weeks.As eye-rolling as I found the whole experience of energetic smoke cleansing, I decided to go for it and smudge myself and my space for 30 days straight.White sage is a small evergreen plant that is a part of Salvia L. genus of the mint family.In the Native American tradition, white sage is considered to be “grounding” medicine that brings wisdom and mental clarity.(You can check more on the topic in the book 36 Healing Herbs by Rebecca L. Johnson and Steven Foster).Almost everything in our modern setting gives off positive ions – from your beloved phone and computer screen to fluorescent lighting, and heating.Some believe that smudging helps turn positive ions into the negative ones, alleviating depression, and boosting our energy.While the plant has a veneer of science to its healing properties, at the end of the day, there’s not much conclusive evidence to back them up.Though it’s easy to see how incredibly appealing smudging sounds, especially to those who are seeking relief from everyday stress and exhaustion.A strong smell hit my nostrils as I opened a package with dry sage.In fact, the fragrance was so strong that when I left the smudge wand unpacked, it seems that the living room will never smell “normal” again.The very first time I picked up a smudge stick and a shell to do a cleansing ceremony, I felt utterly lost.The fact that my husband was bantering with me about spirits taking revenge didn’t really help.It felt comic to bathe my body in smoke, but it also brought some kind of weird mental relief.Not only because, according to people, this helps fill the place with positive energy but also because it felt like a natural thing to do.It didn’t take long to learn the ABCs of smudging, and the whole process felt more relaxed and natural after I did it a few times.The smoke from the sage, by the way, smells much more pleasant than the plant itself and leaves a delightful lingering fragrance.Before moving out of the apartment, I imagined how I had to convince the owners that I was actually cleansing it with sage and not smoking weed.Whether I got rid of all the negative energy in my house and invited good vibes remains a mystery.Mostly because if you leave the smudge stick smoldering in one place, you’ll turn your home into a gas chamber.As simple as it sounds, this is what kept me from going crazy in the chaos of changing seasons, working late, moving apartments.Smudging is a perfect trigger if you want to build a consistent yoga habit or enhance the quality (if I can use this expression in this case) of your spiritual practices.Even deep breathing and chanting at the beginning of yoga practice don’t help.They signal your body to just relax already and soothe your mind to slowly tune into a “chill mode.”.When I was feeling burned out and overwhelmed, smudging helped me look back and remind myself that inner mental hygiene is as important as the physical one.When I was moving through my space with good intention, it gave me the inner power over my environment, over my life, and my actions. .

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