Share on Pinterest Mariela Naplatanova/Stocksy United Thyme is an herb from the mint family that you probably recognize from your spice set, but it’s so much more than an afterthought ingredient.A 2014 study found that an extract was able to significantly lower heart rate in rats with high blood pressure.In one older 2006 study , a combination of thyme and ivy leaves helped to alleviate coughing and other symptoms of acute bronchitis.A 2018 study found a combination of thyme and primula extracts to reduce inflammation and mucous in an animal model.Luckily, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that thyme is packed with helpful nutrients, including: vitamin A.For example, 1 teaspoon of thyme has 1.28 milligrams of vitamin C — according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), that’s only 1 percent of your daily needs.A 2017 study showed that thyme may be effective at controlling gray mold rot in guava fruit.Pests The Environmental Protection Agency says that thymol, a kind of thyme oil, is also an ingredient in many pesticides — both outdoor and indoor — and is commonly used to target: bacteria.other animal pests A 2021 study showed thyme essential oil to be effective against adult mosquitoes and their larvae.You can use thyme essential oil in an aromatherapy diffuser to potentially reap the benefits of its mood-boosting properties, though more research is needed.In a 2013 animal study , carvacrol was shown to increase concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, two hormones that regulate mood.Thyme is a main ingredient in this tasty take on pesto sauce, which you can use as a condiment or add to pasta or rice.A 2012 study indicated that thyme extract might prolong the stability of sunflower oil at different temperatures as well as provide antioxidant effects.A 2013 in vitro study found that thyme oil showed potential as a natural preservative of food products against several common foodborne bacteria that cause human illness, even at low concentrations.In addition, a 2011 in vitro study found thyme oil effective against resistant strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia, and Pseudomonas bacteria.A 2021 in vitro study found very low doses of thyme essential oil to be fungicidal against Candida albicans, a common cause of yeast infections, even when the fungus was resistant to the prescription medication fluconazole. .

THYME: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions

Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme.Clinical trial in acute bronchitis with a fixed combination of fluid extracts of thyme herb and ivy leaves.13th Annual Symposium on Complementary Health Care, 12th-14th December, 2006, University of Exeter, UK.Cuzzolin, L. and Benoni, G. Attitudes and knowledge toward natural products safety in the pharmacy setting: an Italian study.Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A.

N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L.

Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310.Ernst E, Marz R, and Sieder C. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H.

J., and Busch, R. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of thyme and primrose root in patients with acute bronchitis.Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H.

J., and Busch, R. Evaluation of the non-inferiority of a fixed combination of thyme fluid- and primrose root extract in comparison to a fixed combination of thyme fluid extract and primrose root tincture in patients with acute bronchitis.Common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as employed for the ancient methods of embalming.Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough.Kemmerich, B., Eberhardt, R., and Stammer, H. Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough.Kohlert, C., Abel, G., Schmid, E., and Veit, M.

Determination of thymol in human plasma by automated headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic analysis.[Investigation of contact allergies in 100 cases of ulcus cruris (author's transl)].Lorenzi, S., Placucci, F., Vincenzi, C., Bardazzi, F., and Tosti, A. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thymol.Mackiewicz, B., Skorska, C., Dutkiewicz, J., Michnar, M., Milanowski, J., Prazmo, Z., Krysinska-Traczyk, E., and Cisak, E.

Allergic alveolitis due to herb dust exposure.Martinez-Gonzalez, M. C., Goday Bujan, J.

J., Martinez, Gomez W., and Fonseca, Capdevila E. Concomitant allergic contact dermatitis due to Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme).Non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study confirms the benefit and safety of a syrup made of extracts from thyme and ivy leaves].Takada, M., Agata, I., Sakamoto, M., Yagi, N., and Hayashi, N.

On the metabolic detoxication of thymol in rabbit and man.Tognolini, M., Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Bruni, R., Bianchi, A., Chiavarini, M., and Impicciatore, M. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.Twetman, S.

and Petersson, L. G. Interdental caries incidence and progression in relation to mutans streptococci suppression after chlorhexidine-thymol varnish treatments in schoolchildren.Agbor GA, Oben JE, Ngogang JY, et al. Antioxidant capacity of some herbs/spices from cameroon: a comparative study of two methods.Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, et al. Labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme.Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.Caverzan J, Mussi L, Sufi B, et al.

A new phytocosmetic preparation from Thymus vulgaris stimulates adipogenesis and controls skin aging process: In vitro studies and topical effects in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.Dursun N, Liman N, Ozyazgan I, et al. Role of thymus oil in burn wound healing.Ernst E, Marz R, Sieder C. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.Erol S, Aydin B, Dilli D, Okumus N, Zenciroglu A, Gündüz M.

An interesting newborn case of fructose 1-6 diphosphatase deficiency triggered after thyme juice ingestion.Giordani R, Regli P, Kaloustian J, et al. Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans.Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.Golec M, Skorska C, Mackiewicz B, et al. Respiratory effects of exposure to dust from herbs.Grande S, Bogani P, de Saizieu A, et al.

Vasomodulating potential of mediterranean wild plant extracts.Hersch-Martinez P, Leanos-Miranda BE, Solorzano-Santos F. Antibacterial effects of commercial essential oils over locally prevalent pathogenic strains in Mexico.Kitajima J, Ishikawa T, Urabe A, Satoh M.

Monoterpenoids and their glycosides from the leaf of thyme.Meister A, Bernhardt G, Christoffel V, Buschauer A. Antispasmodic activity of Thymus vulgaris extract on the isolated guinea-pig trachea: discrimination between drug and ethanol effects.Park BS, Choi WS, Kim JH, et al.

Monoterpenes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as potential mosquito repellents.Pina-Vaz C, Goncalves Rodrigues A, Pinto E, et al. Antifungal activity of Thymus oils and their major compounds.Proestos C, Chorianopoulos N, Nychas GJ, Komaitis M.

RP-HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds of plant extracts.Ramsewak RS, Nair MG, Stommel M, Selanders L. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.Sakkas H, Papadopoulou C. Antimicrobial activity of Basil, Oregano and Thyme essential oils.Sasaki K, Wada K, Tanaka Y, et al.

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its constituents increase the activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver.A controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia.Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.Vigo E, Cepeda A, Gualillo O, Perez-Fernandez R. In-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: nitric oxide inhibition in J774A.1 murine macrophages.Watanabe J, Shinmoto H, Tsushida T.

Coumarin and flavone derivatives from estragon and thyme as inhibitors of chemical mediator release from RBL-2H3 Cells.Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices.

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Thyme Can Reduce Blood Pressure and Lower the Risk of Heart

Your skin can also benefit from using thyme essential oil to clear infections and treat the symptoms of acne.The journal Plant Foods for Human Nutrition reported that the antioxidative properties of thyme help lower blood pressure.In animal studies, consuming thyme extracts helped reduce hypertension and lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Another study found that consuming thyme extracts helped to reduce blood pressure and lower heart rate.Experts suggest that if you have high blood pressure, consume 2-3 cups of thyme tea daily to help control hypertension. .

Thyme: Health Benefits, Nutrients per Serving, Preparation

Research also suggests that it may have analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties that can help with skin conditions, pain from bug bites, rheumatoid arthritis, and more.While thyme is commonly used to flavor food, this herb has been used since ancient times for different health and medicinal benefits and as a preservative.Thyme oil is frequently used in mouthwashes to help with bad breath, prevent gingivitis, and help treat oral pathogens.Studies have found that thyme supplements offered pain relief from menstrual cramps similar to that provided by ibuprofen. .

Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris): Benefits, Side Effects, Preparation

The plant contains compounds like thymol (a plant-based phenol specific to thyme) that is known to control or neutralize certain bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections.Thyme is touted by proponents as a natural treatment for an almost encyclopedic array of unrelated health conditions, including:.Thyme is also believed to stimulate appetite, curb inflammation, boost immune function, and repel insects.Thyme is believed by practitioners of aromatherapy to exert anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects, a property supported by a 2014 study in the Journal of Acute Disease.According to a 2018 study in International Immunopharmacology, the application of thymol to the skin of people with atopic dermatitis has a direct physiological response.In addition to inhibiting inflammatory compounds known as cytokines, thymol helps shrink the swollen dermal and epidermal skin layers characteristic of dermatitis.This all-too-common complication occurs when swollen tissues allow S. aureus to move from the surface of the skin and establish reservoirs beneath it.According to a 2013 study in the European Respiratory Journal, thymol acts on receptors on the tongue, mouth, throat, and nasal passages in a way that may suppress coughs.In a 2017 study in Scientific Reports, chickens inoculated with the disease-causing bacteria Clostridium perfringens were fed a blend of essential oils containing 25% thymol and 25% carvacrol (another potent phenol found in thyme).Thyme oil mixed with water has long been used as a remedy for bad breath and the prevention of gingivitis and gum disease.There is also evidence that it may treat oral thrush, a common infection caused by the fungi Candida albicans.According to a 2015 study in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, thymol was able to suppress the growth of C.

albicans and other Candida strains in a test tube.The researchers believe that thymol inhibited the production of ergosterol, a cholesterol-like substance needed to foster fungal growth.Thymol (derived from thyme via alcohol extraction) is widely used as an active ingredient in many commercial brands of mouthwash, including Listerine.Hypotension, an abnormal drop in blood pressure, can occur if thyme oil is used in excess.Allergy to thyme oil is also common, especially in people sensitive to plants in the mint family (including oregano, lavender, and sage).Thyme can slow blood clotting and may amplify the effects of anticoagulants like Coumadin (warfarin) or Plavix (clopidogrel), causing easy bleeding and bruising.As such, thyme oil or supplements should be stopped at least two weeks before scheduled surgery to prevent excessive bleeding.Thyme oil or supplements should also be used with caution in people on high blood pressure medications.Fresh thyme generally lasts for around a week in the refrigerator; its leaves will begin to turn black when it gets old.Thyme essential oil is typically sold in light-resistant amber or cobalt blue bottles.The best oils will generally include the plant's Latin name (in this case, Thymus vulgaris), the country of origin, and the extraction method.You can store the essential oil in the refrigerator or in a cool, dry room away from direct sunlight.Resist adding extra thyme oil to topical preparations if they don't smell strong enough.You can also use a commercial diffuser or vaporizer, or simply add a few drops to a simmering pot of water.It is a great addition to pork, lamb, or chicken marinades too, and it gives an aromatic boost to roasted vegetables and potatoes that's reminiscent of pine and camphor (and in the case of lemon thyme, citrusy as well).Thyme can be infused into orange, lemon, or raspberry teas and served either hot or cold.It can even add a surprising floral note when added to whipped cream and baked custards.Lemon and thyme pair beautifully, whether in a roast chicken recipe or a lemony panna cotta. .

Thyme: Benefits, history, and forms

One study from 2010 suggests that thymol can reduce bacterial resistance to common drugs, including penicillin.A team at Chungbuk National University in South Korea reported that a combination of thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol was effective in killing off tiger mosquito larvae.Researchers at the University of Belgrade, Serbia, found that an aqueous extract obtained from wild thyme reduced blood pressure in tests on rats.They reported that thyme oil, even at low concentrations, showed potential as a natural preservative of food products against several common foodborne bacteria that cause human illness.A study carried out in Lisbon, Portugal, found that extracts of mastic thyme might protect people from colon cancers.Researchers at the University of Turin, Italy, found that essential oil of thyme significantly enhanced the destruction of the C. albicans fungus in the human body.Scientists from Warsaw, Poland, examined whether thyme extract might prolong the stability of sunflower oil at different temperatures.“A 3 percent thyme essential oil cream could represent a relatively economical and easily available opportunity to treat and heal mild to moderate cases of fungal infections.”.Its antibacterial effect proved stronger than that of standard concentrations of benzoyl peroxide, the active ingredient in most acne creams and washes.Benzoyl peroxide also causes a burning sensation and irritation on the skin, which means that a thyme tincture might be a solution to acne that leads to fewer unwanted effects. .

Blog: 10 Spices and Herbs that Lower Blood Pressure

Nutmeg Rounding out our trilogy of classic, sweet and savory holiday spices is possibly the most versatile of them all.Nutmeg is packed with antioxidants and has a slew of anti-inflammatory properties, which have been shown to help reduce blood pressure and improve heart health.However, early findings are promising, and show that it has the potential to safely reduce blood pressure through its diuretic properties.In fact, studies have found that garlic can have a similar effect to some blood pressure medications. .

High blood pressure and essential oils: Options and risks

As untreated hypertension can result in a heart attack or stroke, it is important not to rely on essential oils alone as a remedy.They observed significant differences among the groups, suggesting that inhaling specific essential oils may reduce psychological stress responses, serum cortisol levels, and blood pressure.This time, the aim was to observe the effects of essential oil inhalation on blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels in 83 people with prehypertension or hypertension.After this, the participants’ daytime blood pressure and salivary cortisol levels significantly decreased, compared with those in the placebo and control groups.However, in a 2014 study that included 100 participants, the researchers found that exposure to essential oil vapor for longer than 1 hour may be harmful to cardiovascular health.Anyone interested in using essential oils to lower high blood pressure should talk to a doctor first.It is especially important for people with underlying health issues, including asthma, and anyone taking supplements or medications to consult a doctor before trying essential oils.If a person ingests an essential oil, adverse effects can be noticeable within 30 minutes, though they may take up to 4 hours to appear.coma If a person has ingested essential oils, contact poison control or otherwise seek medical advice.There is a concern that, in pregnant women, topically applied oils may penetrate the placenta and affect the fetus.Overall, it is a good idea to avoid diffusing essential oils in the presence of children or pregnant women. .

Garlic: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions

Abbruzzese, M. R., Delaha, E. C., and Garagusi, V. F. Absence of antimycobacterial synergism between garlic extract and antituberculosis drugs.[Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test].Adetumbi, M., Javor, G. T., and Lau, B.

H. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans.Ahmad, M. S., Pischetsrieder, M., and Ahmed, N.

Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts.Ahmadi, N., Tsimikas, S., Hajsadeghi, F., Saeed, A., Nabavi, V., Bevinal, M. A., Kadakia, J., Flores, F., Ebrahimi, R., and Budoff, M. J.Relation of oxidative biomarkers, vascular dysfunction, and progression of coronary artery calcium.Ali, M.

and Thomson, M. Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis.Ali, M.

Mechanism by which garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits cyclooxygenase activity.Effect of raw versus boiled garlic extract on the synthesis of prostanoids.Ambati, S., Yang, J. Y., Rayalam, S., Park, H. J., Della-Fera, M. A., and Baile, C.

A. Ajoene exerts potent effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing apoptosis.Andrianova, I.

V., Fomchenkov, I. V., and Orekhov, A. N.

[Hypotensive effect of long-acting garlic tablets allicor (a double-blind placebo-controlled trial)].A., Karabasova, IaA, Liutova, L. I., Povorinskaia, T. E., and Orekhov, A. N. [Use of allikor for the normalization of fibrinolysis and hemostasis in patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases].[Effect of long-acting garlic tablets "allicor" on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections in children].Anim-Nyame, N., Sooranna, S. R., Johnson, M.

R., Gamble, J., and Steer, P. J.

Garlic supplementation increases peripheral blood flow: a role for interleukin-6?Anthony, J. P., Fyfe, L., and Smith, H. Plant active components - a resource for antiparasitic agents?Apitz-Castro, R., Escalante, J., Vargas, R., and Jain, M. K.

Ajoene, the antiplatelet principle of garlic, synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin and dypiridamole on human platelets.Ashraf, M. Z., Hussain, M. E., and Fahim, M. Endothelium mediated vasorelaxant response of garlic in isolated rat aorta: role of nitric oxide.Ashraf, R., Aamir, K., Shaikh, A.

R., and Ahmed, T. Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Augusti, K. T.

and Sheela, C. G. Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats.Effects of garlic consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects.Ayala-Zavala, J.

F., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G. A., and Toro-Sanchez, L.

Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils.Bagga, S., Thomas, B. S., and Bhat, M.

Garlic burn as self-inflicted mucosal injury--a case report and review of the literature.B., Shabestari, S. B., Tanik, A., and Pahlevan, R. Comparison of therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of garlic and nystatin mouthwash in denture stomatitis.Bakri, I.

M. and Douglas, C.

W. Inhibitory effect of garlic extract on oral bacteria.Balasenthil, S., Ramachandran, C. R., and Nagini, S.

Prevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by garlic.Balasenthil, S., Rao, K. S., and Nagini, S. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic.Balasenthil, S., Rao, K. S., and Nagini, S.

Retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA expression during chemoprevention of hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by garlic.Baluchnejadmojarad, T. and Roghani, M. Endothelium-dependent and -independent effect of aqueous extract of garlic on vascular reactivity on diabetic rats.Baluchnejadmojarad, T., Roghani, M., Homayounfar, H., and Hosseini, M.

Beneficial effect of aqueous garlic extract on the vascular reactivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats.Banerjee, S. K., Dinda, A. K., Manchanda, S. C., and Maulik, S.

K. Chronic garlic administration protects rat heart against oxidative stress induced by ischemic reperfusion injury.Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and blood pressure in humans.Belman, S.

Onion and garlic oils inhibit tumor promotion.A., and Orekhov, A. N.

[Study of the antioxidant drug "Karinat" in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis].A., Krzhivitskii, P. I., Semiglazov, V.

F., Aleksandrov, V. A., Sobenin, N. A., and Orekhov, A. N.

[Study of an antioxidant dietary supplement "Karinat" in patients with benign breast disease].Bhushan, S., Sharma, S. P., Singh, S. P., Agrawal, S., Indrayan, A., and Seth, P. Effect of garlic on normal blood cholesterol level.Bhuvaneswari, V., Abraham, S.

K., and Nagini, S. Combinatorial antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of tomato and garlic through modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis.Bimmermann A, Weingart K, and Schwartzkopff W.

Allium sativum: Studie zur Wirksamkeit bei Hyperlipoproteinamie.Bleumink, E., Doeglas, H. M., Klokke, A. H., and Nater, J.

P. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic.Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart disease.Bordia, A. K., Joshi, H.

K., Sanadhya, Y. K., and Bhu, N. Effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease.Bordia, A., Bansal, H.

C., Arora, S. K., and Singh, S.

V. Effect of the essential oils of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia.Bordia, A., Verma, S. K., and Srivastava, K. C. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in humans: a study in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease.Bordia, T., Mohammed, N., Thomson, M., and Ali, M. An evaluation of garlic and onion as antithrombotic agents.B., and Eling, T.

E. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) induces the antitumorigenic NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1) by a p53-dependent mechanism in human colorectal HCT 116 cells.Bradley R, Endres J, Hockenberry D, and et al.

Investigation of garlic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines [poster presentation].International Scientific Conference on Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Research, Boston, MA, 2002.Brosche, T., Platt, D., and Dorner, H. The effect of a garlic preparation on the composition of plasma lipoproteins and erythrocyte membranes in geriatric subjects.Budoff, M. J., Takasu, J., Flores, F. R., Niihara, Y., Lu, B., Lau, B.

H., Rosen, R. T., and Amagase, H. Inhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: a preliminary study.Buiatti, E., Palli, D., Decarli, A., Amadori, D., Avellini, C., Bianchi, S., Biserni, R., Cipriani, F., Cocco, P., Giacosa, A., and .Byrne, D. J., Neil, H.

A., Vallance, D. T., and Winder, A. F.

A pilot study of garlic consumption shows no significant effect on markers of oxidation or sub-fraction composition of low-density lipoprotein including lipoprotein(a) after allowance for non-compliance and the placebo effect.Canduela, V., Mongil, I., Carrascosa, M., Docio, S., and Cagigas, P. Garlic: always good for the health?Caporaso, N., Smith, S. M., and Eng, R.

H. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum).Challier, B., Perarnau, J.

M., and Viel, J. F. Garlic, onion and cereal fibre as protective factors for breast cancer: a French case-control study.Chauhan, N.

B. and Sandoval, J.

Amelioration of early cognitive deficits by aged garlic extract in Alzheimer's transgenic mice.Effect of aged garlic extract on APP processing and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576.Chu, Q., Lee, D. T., Tsao, S. W., Wang, X., and Wong, Y. C. S-allylcysteine, a water-soluble garlic derivative, suppresses the growth of a human androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft, CWR22R, under in vivo conditions.Cohain, J. S.

Long-term symptomatic group B streptococcal vulvovaginitis: eight cases resolved with freshly cut garlic.Das, I., Khan, N. S., and Sooranna, S. R.

Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications.Das, I., Patel, S., and Sooranna, S. R. Effects of aspirin and garlic on cyclooxygenase-induced chemiluminescence in human term placenta.In vitro synergism of concentrated allium sativum extract and amphotericin B against cryptococcus neoformans.Davis, L.

E., Shen, J. K., and Cai, Y. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum.Davis, S.

R., Perrie, R., and Apitz-Castro, R. The in vitro susceptibility of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and a raw extract of garlic (Allium sativum).de Rooij, B. M., Boogaard, P. J., Rijksen, D.

A., Commandeur, J. N., and Vermeulen, N. P. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine upon garlic consumption by human volunteers.Delaha, E.

C. and Garagusi, V. F.

Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum).Demirkaya, E., Avci, A., Kesik, V., Karslioglu, Y., Oztas, E., Kismet, E., Gokcay, E., Durak, I., and Koseoglu, V. Cardioprotective roles of aged garlic extract, grape seed proanthocyanidin, and hazelnut on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.Deshpande, R. G., Khan, M.

B., Bhat, D. A., and Navalkar, R.

G. Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by garlic (Allium sativum).Dhawan, V.

and Jain, S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension.Dillon, S. A., Lowe, G.

M., Billington, D., and Rahman, K. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract reduces plasma and urine concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) in smoking and nonsmoking men and women.Dirsch VM, Kiemer AK, Wagner H, and et al. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase.Dirsch, V.

M., Gerbes, A. L., and Vollmar, A. M. Ajoene, a compound of garlic, induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor kappaB.Dixit, V.

P. and Joshi, S.

Effects of chronic administration of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) on testicular function.Dorant, E., van den Brandt, P. A., Goldbohm, R.

A., and Sturmans, F. Consumption of onions and a reduced risk of stomach carcinoma.A., Breckler, L., Hale, J., Lehmann, H., Franklin, P., Lyons, G., Ching, S.

Y., Mori, T. A., Barden, A., and Prescott, S.

L. Supplementation with vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium has no effect on anti-oxidant status and immune responses in allergic adults: a randomized controlled trial.Durak, I., Kavutcu, M., Aytac, B., Avci, A., Devrim, E., Ozbek, H., and Ozturk, H. S. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol.Dwivedi, C., John, L.

M., Schmidt, D. S., and Engineer, F. N. Effects of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds from garlic on doxorubicin-induced lipid peroxidation.Egen-Schwind C, Eckard R, Jekat FW, and et al. Pharmacokinetics of vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin.Eguchi, A., Murakami, A., and Ohigashi, H. Novel bioassay system for evaluating anti-oxidative activities of food items: use of basolateral media from differentiated Caco-2 cells.El Beshbishy, H.

A. Aqueous garlic extract attenuates hepatitis and oxidative stress induced by galactosamine/lipoploysaccharide in rats.el Sabban, F.

and Radwan, G. M.

Influence of garlic compared to aspirin on induced photothrombosis in mouse pial microvessels, in vivo.Eming, S. A., Piontek, J. O., Hunzelmann, N., Rasokat, H., and Scharffetter-Kachanek, K.

Severe toxic contact dermatitis caused by garlic.Fani, M. M., Kohanteb, J., and Dayaghi, M. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans.Feldberg, R. S., Chang, S.

C., Kotik, A. N., Nadler, M., Neuwirth, Z., Sundstrom, D.

C., and Thompson, N. H. In vitro mechanism of inhibition of bacterial cell growth by allicin.Friedman, T., Shalom, A., and Westreich, M. Self-inflicted garlic burns: our experience and literature review.Gaddoni G, Selvi M, Resta F, and et al. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic in a cook.Gail M, You WC, Chang YS, and et al. Factorial trial of three interventions to reduce the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in Shandong, China: Design issues and initial data.Gail, M.

H. and You, W. C. A factorial trial including garlic supplements assesses effect in reducing precancerous gastric lesions.Galduroz, J. C., Antunes, H. K., and Santos, R.

F. Gender- and age-related variations in blood viscosity in normal volunteers: a study of the effects of extract of Allium sativum and Ginkgo biloba.Gallwitz, H., Bonse, S., Martinez-Cruz, A., Schlichting, I., Schumacher, K., and Krauth-Siegel, R.

L. Ajoene is an inhibitor and subversive substrate of human glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase: crystallographic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies.Gamboa-Leon, M.

R., Aranda-Gonzalez, I., Mut-Martin, M., Garcia-Miss, M. R., and Dumonteil, E.

In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production.Gao YT, McLaughlin JK, and Gridley G. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Shanghai, China.Gao, C. M., Takezaki, T., Ding, J.

H., Li, M. S., and Tajima, K. Protective effect of allium vegetables against both esophageal and stomach cancer: a simultaneous case-referent study of a high-epidemic area in Jiangsu Province, China.Effect of garlic supplementation on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic men and women.Gebhardt R, Beck H, and Wagner K. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by allicin and ajoene in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells.Germain, E., Auger, J., Ginies, C., Siess, M.

H., and Teyssier, C. In vivo metabolism of diallyl disulphide in the rat: identification of two new metabolites.Ghannoum, M.

A. Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic).Studies on the anticandidal mode of action of Allium sativum (garlic).Ghazanfari, T., Hassan, Z.

M., and Khamesipour, A. Enhancement of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity against Leishmania major by garlic (Allium sativum) treatment.Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, and Willett WC.Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men.Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J.

C., Motta, R. H., Ferraresi, P.

M., and Sartoratto, A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci.Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J.

C., Simoes, R. P., Florio, F. M., and Sartoratto, A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms.Guo, N.

L., Lu, D. P., Woods, G.

L., Reed, E., Zhou, G. Z., Zhang, L.

B., and Waldman, R. H. Demonstration of the anti-viral activity of garlic extract against human cytomegalovirus in vitro.Guo, Y., Zhang, K., Wang, Q., Li, Z., Yin, Y., Xu, Q., Duan, W., and Li, C.

Neuroprotective effects of diallyl trisulfide in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.Gupta, N. and Porter, T. D.

Garlic and garlic-derived compounds inhibit human squalene monooxygenase.Hajheydari, Z., Jamshidi, M., Akbari, J., and Mohammadpour, R. Combination of topical garlic gel and betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: a double-blind randomized controlled study.Effect of milk on the deodorization of malodorous breath after garlic ingestion.Hansson LE, Nyren O, and Bergstrom R.

Diet and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based case-control study in Sweden.Harenberg, J., Giese, C., and Zimmermann, R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia.Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the potential herbal sources of future drugs effective in oxidant-related diseases.Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review.Hassan, Z. M., Yaraee, R., Zare, N., Ghazanfari, T., Sarraf Nejad, A. H., and Nazori, B.

Immunomodulatory affect of R10 fraction of garlic extract on natural killer activity.Helen, A., Krishnakumar, K., Vijayammal, P. L., and Augusti, K. T.

A comparative study of antioxidants S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide and vitamin E on the damages induced by nicotine in rats.Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N.

P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D.

Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form.Higashikawa, F., Noda, M., Awaya, T., Ushijima, M., and Sugiyama, M. Reduction of serum lipids by the intake of the extract of garlic fermented with Monascus pilosus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.Hikino, H., Tohkin, M., Kiso, Y., Namiki, T., Nishimura, S., and Takeyama, K.

Antihepatotoxic actions of Allium sativum bulbs.Hiltunen, R., Josling, P. D., and James, M.

H. Preventing airborne infection with an intranasal cellulose powder formulation (Nasaleze travel).Hirsch, K., Danilenko, M., Giat, J., Miron, T., Rabinkov, A., Wilchek, M., Mirelman, D., Levy, J., and Sharoni, Y.Effect of purified allicin, the major ingredient of freshly crushed garlic, on cancer cell proliferation.Hsu, C. C., Huang, C.

N., Hung, Y. C., and Yin, M.

C. Five cysteine-containing compounds have antioxidative activity in Balb/cA mice.Hu, J., Nyren, O., Wolk, A., Bergstrom, R., Yuen, J., Adami, H. O., Guo, L., Li, H., Huang, G., Xu, X., and .Hughes BG, Murray BK, North JA, and et al.

Antiviral constituents from Allium sativum.Hughes, T. M., Varma, S., and Stone, N. M. Occupational contact dermatitis from a garlic and herb mixture.Hurley, M.

N., Forrester, D. L., and Smyth, A.

R. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis.Hussain, S. P., Jannu, L. N., and Rao, A.

R. Chemopreventive action of garlic on methylcholanthrene-induced carcinogenesis in the uterine cervix of mice.Huynh F, Fowkes C, and Tejani A. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients.Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit Cu2+ -induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein.Ishikawa, H., Saeki, T., Otani, T., Suzuki, T., Shimozuma, K., Nishino, H., Fukuda, S., and Morimoto, K. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer.Jabbari, A., Argani, H., Ghorbanihaghjo, A., and Mahdavi, R. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients.Jain, R. C.

Effect of garlic on serum lipids, coagulability and fibrinolytic activity of blood.Garlic for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (Cochrane Review).Kabasakal, L., Sehirli, O., Cetinel, S., Cikler, E., Gedik, N., and Sener, G. Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.Kandziora J.

Blutdruck and lipidsenkende Wirkung eines Knoblauch-praparates in kombination mit einem Diuretikum.Kannar D. Clinical evaluation of Australian based garlic and its combination with inulin in mild and moderate hyperlipidaemia [dissertation] .Kannar, D., Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Savige, G.

S., and Wahlqvist, M. L. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic supplement.Keiss, H. P., Dirsch, V. M., Hartung, T., Haffner, T., Trueman, L., Auger, J., Kahane, R., and Vollmar, A. M.

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated human blood thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB activity.Khodavandi, A., Alizadeh, F., Harmal, N. S., Sidik, S. M., Othman, F., Sekawi, Z., Jahromi, M. A., Ng, K.

P., and Chong, P. P.

Comparison between efficacy of allicin and fluconazole against Candida albicans in vitro and in a systemic candidiasis mouse model.Kianoush, S., Balali-Mood, M., Mousavi, S. R., Moradi, V., Sadeghi, M., Dadpour, B., Rajabi, O., and Shakeri, M.

T. Comparison of therapeutic effects of garlic and d-Penicillamine in patients with chronic occupational lead poisoning.Effects of garlic on blood fluidity and fibrinolytic activity: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.Kim, J. Y.

and Kwon, O. Garlic intake and cancer risk: an analysis using the Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims.Knox, J. and Gaster, B. Dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease.Kockar, C., Ozturk, M., and Bavbek, N.

Helicobacter pylori eradication with beta carotene, ascorbic acid and allicin.Kojuri, J., Vosoughi, A. R., and Akrami, M. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients.Koscielny, J., Schmitt, R., Radtke, H., Latza, R., and Kiesewetter, H.

Garlic study vindicated by official investigation.Ku DD, Abdel-Razek TT, Dai J, and et al. Mechanisms of garlic induced pulmonary vasorelaxation: role of allicin.Kumar, M. and Berwal, J. S. Sensitivity of food pathogens to garlic (Allium sativum).Treatment of venous ulcers with the herbal-based ointment Herbadermal(R): a prospective non-randomized pilot study.Kweon, S., Park, K. A., and Choi, H.

Chemopreventive effect of garlic powder diet in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis.Laing, M. E., Barry, J., Buckley, A. M., and Murphy, G.

M. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to food and latex in a chef.Larijani, V.

N., Ahmadi, N., Zeb, I., Khan, F., Flores, F., and Budoff, M. Beneficial effects of aged garlic extract and coenzyme Q10 on vascular elasticity and endothelial function: the FAITH randomized clinical trial.Lash, J.

P., Cardoso, L. R., Mesler, P.

M., Walczak, D. A., and Pollak, R.

The effect of garlic on hypercholesterolemia in renal transplant patients.The effect of garlic oil on lipid peroxidation and blood cell counts of arsenic exposed albino mice.Lau BH, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R, and et al. Effect of odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids.Leelarungrayub, N., Rattanapanone, V., Chanarat, N., and Gebicki, J.

M. Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations.Lei, Y.

P., Chen, H. W., Sheen, L.

Y., and Lii, C. K.

Diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide suppress oxidized LDL-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule and E-selectin expression through protein kinase A- and B-dependent signaling pathways.Lembo, G., Balato, N., Patruno, C., Auricchio, L., and Ayala, F. Allergic contact dermatitis due to garlic (Allium sativum).Levi, F., Franceschi, S., Negri, E., and La Vecchia, C.

Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer.Levi, F., La Vecchia, C., Gulie, C., and Negri, E. Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland.Li, G., Shi, Z., Jia, H., Ju, J., Wang, X., Xia, Z., Qin, L., Ge, C., Xu, Y., Cheng, L., Chen, P., and Yuan, G. A clinical investigation on garlicin injectio for treatment of unstable angina pectoris and its actions on plasma endothelin and blood sugar levels.An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum.Li, M., Ciu, J.

R., Ye, Y., Min, J. M., Zhang, L. H., Wang, K., Gares, M., Cros, J., Wright, M., and Leung-Tack, J. Antitumor activity of Z-ajoene, a natural compound purified from garlic: antimitotic and microtubule-interaction properties.Li, M., Min, J.

M., Cui, J. R., Zhang, L. H., Wang, K., Valette, A., Davrinche, C., Wright, M., and Leung-Tack, J. Z-ajoene induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells: involvement of Bcl-2 cleavage.Lian Z, Jun-Ling M, and Wei-Dong L. A randomized multi-intervention trial to inhibit gastric cancer in Shandong (progress report).Lin, M. C., Wang, E.

J., Lee, C., Chin, K. T., Liu, D., Chiu, J. F., and Kung, H.

F. Garlic inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression in human liver and intestinal cell lines and in rat intestine.Effect of supplementation with garlic oil on activity of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes from rats.Liu, L. and Yeh, Y.

Y. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by organosulfur compounds derived from garlic.Lohse, N., Kraghede, P. G., and Molbak, K.

[Botulism an a 38-year-old man after ingestion of garlic in chilli oil].Lutomski J. Klinische Untersuchungen zur therapeutischen Wirksamkeit von Ilha Rogoff Knobauchpillen mit Rutin.Ma, J.

L., Zhang, L., Brown, L. M., Li, J.

Y., Shen, L., Pan, K. F., Liu, W. D., Hu, Y., Han, Z. X., Crystal-Mansour, S., Pee, D., Blot, W. J., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., You, W.

C., and Gail, M. H.

Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality.Aged garlic extract attenuates gentamicin induced renal damage and oxidative stress in rats.Mansell P, Reckless PD, and Lloyd L. The effect of dried garlic powder tablets on serum lipids in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients.Marsh, C.

L., Torrey, R. R., Woolley, J. L., Barker, G.

R., and Lau, B. H.

Superiority of intravesical immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and Allium sativum in control of murine bladder cancer.Alternative medicine -- a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of garlic in hypercholesterolemic children [white diamond suit] 661.McFadden, J. P., White, I.

R., and Rycroft, R. J. Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic.Reduced allergy rates in atopic eczema to contact allergens used in both skin products and foods: atopy and the 'hapten-atopy hypothesis'.A pilot study to determine the effectiveness of garlic oil capsules in the treatment of dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori.Effects of garlic powder tablets on patients with hyperlipdaemia in Canadian clinical practice.Millen, A.

E., Subar, A. F., Graubard, B. I., Peters, U., Hayes, R.

B., Weissfeld, J. L., Yokochi, L. A., and Ziegler, R. G. Fruit and vegetable intake and prevalence of colorectal adenoma in a cancer screening trial.Mirunalini S, Ramachandran CR, and Nagini S. Chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic oil.Morioka, N., Sze, L.

L., Morton, D. L., and Irie, R.

F. A protein fraction from aged garlic extract enhances cytotoxicity and proliferation of human lymphocytes mediated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin A.Mukherjee, M., Das, A.

S., Das, D., Mukherjee, S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Effects of garlic oil on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of lovastatin and 17beta-estradiol.on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis.Nagae, S., Ushijima, M., Hatono, S., Imai, J., Kasuga, S., Matsuura, H., Itakura, Y., and Higashi, Y. Pharmacokinetics of the garlic compound S-allylcysteine.Naganawa, R., Iwata, N., Ishikawa, K., Fukuda, H., Fujino, T., and Suzuki, A.

Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic.Nagaraj, N. S., Anilakumar, K.

R., and Singh, O. V. Diallyl disulfide causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells through a Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway.Nahas, R.

and Balla, A. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold.Nakagawa, S., Masamoto, K., Sumiyoshi, H., and Harada, H. [Acute toxicity test of garlic extract].Nantz, M. P., Rowe, C.

A., Muller, C. E., Creasy, R. A., Stanilka, J.

M., and Percival, S. S.

Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and gammadelta-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention.Nishino, H., Iwashima, A., Itakura, Y., Matsuura, H., and Fuwa, T. Antitumor-promoting activity of garlic extracts.A comparative study on the effectiveness of garlic with clofibrate in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.Numagami, Y.

and Ohnishi, S. T.

S-allylcysteine inhibits free radical production, lipid peroxidation and neuronal damage in rat brain ischemia.Oi, Y., Kawada, T., Shishido, C., Wada, K., Kominato, Y., Nishimura, S., Ariga, T., and Iwai, K. Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.Omurtag, G.

Z., Guranlioglu, F. D., Sehirli, O., Arbak, S., Uslu, B., Gedik, N., and Sener, G.

Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in mice.Orekhov A and Tertov V. In vitro effect of garlic powder extract on lipid content in normal and atherosclerotic human aortic cells.Garlic powder tablets reduce atherogenicity of low density lipoprotein.Pai, S.

T. and Platt, M.

W. Antifungal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against the Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis.Papageorgiou, C., Corbet, J.

P., Menezes-Brandao, F., Pecegueiro, M., and Benezra, C. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic (Allium sativum L.).Parastoui K, Ravanshad Sh Mostafavi H Setoudeh Maram E. Effects of garlic tablet on blood sugar, plasma lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia.Parish, R. A., McIntire, S., and Heimbach, D. M. Garlic burns: a naturopathic remedy gone awry.Pathak, A., Leger, P., Bagheri, H., Senard, J.

M., Boccalon, H., and Montastruc, J. L. Garlic interaction with fluindione: a case report.Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Maldonado, P. D., Medina-Campos, O. N., Olivares-Corichi, I. M., Granados-Silvestre, M.

A., Hernandez-Pando, R., and Ibarra-Rubio, M. E.

Garlic ameliorates gentamicin nephrotoxicity: relation to antioxidant enzymes.Effect of garlic on lipid profile and psychopathologic parameters in people with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia.Pena, N., Auro, A., and Sumano, H. A comparative trial of garlic, its extract and ammonium-potassium tartrate as anthelmintics in carp.Phelps, S. and Harris, W. S. Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility.Pinto, J. T.

and Rivlin, R. S. Antiproliferative effects of allium derivatives from garlic.Pinto, J. T., Qiao, C., Xing, J., Rivlin, R. S., Protomastro, M. L., Weissler, M.

L., Tao, Y., Thaler, H., and Heston, W. D. Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture.Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Complementary therapies for peripheral arterial disease: systematic review.Plengvidhya, C., Sitprija, S., Chinayon, S., Pasatrat, S., and Tankeyoon, M.

Effects of spray dried garlic preparation on primary hyperlipoproteinemia.Effect of dietary garlic (Allium Sativum) on the blood pressure in humans--a pilot study.Rahmani M, Tabari AK, Niaki MRK, and et al. Effect of dried garlic supplementation on blood lipids in mild and moderate hypercholesterolemic patients.Rahmy, T. R. and Hemmaid, K.

Z. Prophylactic action of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of hepatic and gastric tissues in rats injected with a snake venom.Rajan, T.

V., Hein, M., Porte, P., and Wikel, S. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of garlic as a mosquito repellant: a preliminary study.Rapp, A., Grohmann, G., Oelzner, P., Uehleke, B., and Uhlemann, C. [Does garlic influence rheologic properties and blood flow in progressive systemic sclerosis?].Razo-Rodriguez, A. C., Chirino, Y. I., Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. J., Martinez-Martinez, C.

M., Cruz, C., and Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Garlic powder ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress.Reinhart, K. M., Coleman, C.

I., Teevan, C., Vachhani, P., and White, C. M. Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis.Ried, K., Frank, O. R., and Stocks, N. P. Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial.Russell, J.

E. Chinese complementary therapy for stress causing bilateral chemical burns to the feet.Sabitha, P., Adhikari, P. M., Shenoy, S.

M., Kamath, A., John, R., Prabhu, M. V., Mohammed, S., Baliga, S., and Padmaja, U. Efficacy of garlic paste in oral candidiasis.Saleem, S., Ahmad, M., Ahmad, A. S., Yousuf, S., Ansari, M.

A., Khan, M. B., Ishrat, T., and Islam, F. Behavioral and histologic neuroprotection of aqueous garlic extract after reversible focal cerebral ischemia.Salem, S., Salahi, M., Mohseni, M., Ahmadi, H., Mehrsai, A., Jahani, Y., and Pourmand, G. Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study.A. and Abasiyanik, F. M.

Does regular garlic intake affect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic subjects?Salman, H., Bergman, M., Bessler, H., Punsky, I., and Djaldetti, M. Effect of a garlic derivative (alliin) on peripheral blood cell immune responses.Sanchez-Hernandez, M. C., Hernandez, M., Delgado, J., Guardia, P., Monteseirin, J., Bartolome, B., Palacios, R., Martinez, J., and Conde, J. Allergenic cross-reactivity in the Liliaceae family.Sandhu, D. K., Warraich, M. K., and Singh, S.

Sensitivity of yeasts isolated from cases of vaginitis to aqueous extracts of garlic.Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on lipid peroxidation in experimental myocardial infarction in rats.Sarrell, E. M., Cohen, H.

A., and Kahan, E. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children.Seuri, M., Taivanen, A., Ruoppi, P., and Tukiainen, H. Three cases of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by garlic.Shakeel, M., Trinidade, A., McCluney, N., and Clive, B.

Complementary and alternative medicine in epistaxis: a point worth considering during the patient's history.Sheela, C. G.

and Augusti, K. T. Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic Allium sativum Linn.Shu, X.

O., Zheng, W., Potischman, N., Brinton, L. A., Hatch, M. C., Gao, Y. T., and Fraumeni, J.

F., Jr. A population-based case-control study of dietary factors and endometrial cancer in Shanghai, People's Republic of China.Siegel G. Long-term effect of garlic in preventing arteriosclerosis - results of two controlled clinical trials.The effects of garlic preparation against human tumour cell proliferation.B., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kubik, E., Mishra, L. C., Shepard, N. P., Singh, V.

J., Meier, M., and Madhu, S. G. Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs.Sitprija, S., Plengvidhya, C., Kangkaya, V., Bhuvapanich, S., and Tunkayoon, M.

Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase II clinical trial.Smyth, A. R., Cifelli, P. M., Ortori, C.

A., Righetti, K., Lewis, S., Erskine, P., Holland, E. D., Givskov, M., Williams, P., Camara, M., Barrett, D.

A., and Knox, A. Garlic as an inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing in cystic fibrosis--a pilot randomized controlled trial.A., Andrianova, I. V., Demidova, O.

N., Gorchakova, T., and Orekhov, A. N.

Lipid-lowering effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study.A., Nedosugova, L. V., Filatova, L. V., Balabolkin, M.

I., Gorchakova, T. V., and Orekhov, A.

N. Metabolic effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the results of double-blinded placebo-controlled study.A., Prianishnikov, V.

V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A.

N. [Allicor efficacy in lowering the risk of ischemic heart disease in primary prophylaxis].A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L.

M., Rabinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Use of allicor to lower the risk of myocardial infarction].A., Prianishnikov, V.

V., Kunnova, L. M., Radinovich, E.

A., and Orekhov, A. N.

[Reduction of cardiovascular risk in primary prophylaxy of coronary heart disease].A., Martirosyan, D. M., and Orekhov, A. N.

The effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease.Soffar, S. A. and Mokhtar, G.

M. Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis.Preecampisia [sic] is an important complication of pregnancy which can result in morbidity and mortality in mother, fetus and the neonate.Sparnins, V. L., Barany, G., and Wattenberg, L.

W. Effects of organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions on benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse.St Louis, M. E., Peck, S.

H., Bowering, D., Morgan, G. B., Blatherwick, J., Banerjee, S., Kettyls, G.

D., Black, W. A., Milling, M. E., Hauschild, A.

H., and .Stabler, S. N., Tejani, A.

M., Huynh, F., and Fowkes, C. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients.Subramanian P, Sundaresan S, and Manivasagam T. Influence of garlic extract on temporal characteristics of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in tumor-bearing rats.Sumiyoshi, H., Kanezawa, A., Masamoto, K., Harada, H., Nakagami, S., Yokota, A., Nishikawa, M., and Nakagawa, S.

[Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats].Sundaresan S and Subramanian P. Evaluation of chemopreventive potential of garlic extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats.Z., Cai, S.

K., Hou, Y., Luo, Q. S., and Blot, W. J.

Dietary determinants of lung-cancer risk: results from a case-control study in Yunnan Province, China.Szybejko, J., Zukowski, A., and Herbec, R. [Unusual cause of obturation of the small intestine].Takeuchi, S., Matsuzaki, Y., Ikenaga, S., Nishikawa, Y., Kimura, K., Nakano, H., and Sawamura, D. Garlic-induced irritant contact dermatitis mimicking nail psoriasis.Tanaka, S., Haruma, K., Kunihiro, M., Nagata, S., Kitadai, Y., Manabe, N., Sumii, M., Yoshihara, M., Kajiyama, G., and Chayama, K. Effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on colorectal adenomas: a double-blinded study.Tanaka, S., Haruma, K., Yoshihara, M., Kajiyama, G., Kira, K., Amagase, H., and Chayama, K. Aged garlic extract has potential suppressive effect on colorectal adenomas in humans.Tanamai, J., Veeramanomai, S., and Indrakosas, N. The efficacy of cholesterol-lowering action and side effects of garlic enteric coated tablets in man.Thabrew, M.

I., Samarawickrema, N. A., Chandrasena, L. G., and Jayasekera, S. Protection by garlic against adriamycin induced alterations in the oxido-reductive status of mouse red blood cells.Thamburan, S., Klaasen, J., Mabusela, W.

T., Cannon, J. F., Folk, W., and Johnson, Q.

Tulbaghia alliacea phytotherapy: a potential anti-infective remedy for candidiasis.The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis.Mechanism of antioxidation, inhibiting carcinogenesis and modification of LDL of aged garlic extract.Pharmaceutical Care and Research (Yaoxue Fuwu Yu Yanjiu) (CHINA) 2002;2:122-124.Tsai PB, Harnack LJ, Anderson KE, and et al. Dietary intake of garlic and other Allium vegetables and breast cancer risk in a prospective study of postmenopausal women.Tsai, Y., Cole, L. L., Davis, L.

E., Lockwood, S. J., Simmons, V., and Wild, G. C. Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects on influenza B, herpes simplex and coxsackie viruses.Tu, H.

K., Pan, K. F., Zhang, Y., Li, W. Q., Zhang, L., Ma, J.

L., Li, J. Y., and You, W.

C. Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism and risk of gastric lesions, and its effects on chemoprevention in a Chinese population.Turner, B., Molgaard, C., and Marckmann, P. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Tutakne, M.

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Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Response to Wild Thyme

We found that wild thyme (a spice plant, rich in polyphenolic compounds) induced a significant decrease of blood pressure and vascular resistance in hypertensive rats.Next product of heme oxidation, bilirubin (a chain-breaking antioxidant that acts as a lipid peroxyl radical scavenger), becomes significantly increased after wild thyme treatment and induces the reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in hypertensive, but not in normotensive rats.Hypertension is recognized as a highly significant risk factor, and many effective antihypertensive drugs are developed, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channels blockers, and nitric oxide (NO) donors [2, 3].Yet, for various reasons, hypertension is still a poorly controlled disorder, even in countries with very efficient preventive medical services.It should also be noted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the effectiveness of alternative therapeutic approaches in the treatment of various disorders, including hypertension.Thus, epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a negative correlation between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (fruits, vegetables, cocoa, etc.).Thymus serpyllum L. (wild thyme, TE) has traditionally been used as a spice plant, whose aqueous extract is rich in the polyphenolic compounds [7] that are considered to be responsible for their antioxidant effects.Also, the antihypertensive effect of essential oils from Chinese medicinal plants was confirmed in experimental studies [8].Similarly, water extracts of plants from Lamiaceae family, rich in phenolic acids, decreased systolic blood pressure after subcutaneous administration in conscious stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats [9] and inhibit rabbit lung angiotensin I-converting enzyme in vitro [10].In addition, our previous study showed that aqueous extract obtained from TE induces powerful NO-independent systemic vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) [7].Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring to form the water-soluble 1-carbon fragment as carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and a biliverdin [14], which is reduced by biliverdin reductase to bilirubin (lipophilic linear tetrapyrrole), a compound with potent antioxidant capacity, abundant in blood plasma [15].The CO, generated in equimolar concentrations to biliverdin during heme oxidation by HO, like NO, inhibits platelet aggregation and acts as a vasodilator when bioavailability of NO is limited [16].This relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells results from activation of pathways, including the stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, opening of calcium activated channel, inhibition of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, or blocking the production of constrictor substances like endothelin [17].Furthermore, the increased ROS production that was observed in hypertensive animals and humans could be reduced by treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics or antioxidants, resulting in the improvement of vascular and renal function, regression of vascular remodelling, and reduction of blood pressure [11].Considering all the above, we hypothesized that TE regulates blood pressure and oxidative stress of SHR through a mechanism that could involve HO-1.Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of TE treatment to upregulate the expression and activity of inducible form of HO-1 and its correlation with antihypertensive as well as antioxidant responses of SHR.Briefly, TE was extracted by pouring 200 mL of boiled distilled water over the herbal samples (10 g) at room temperature, filtered through a tea strainer, and freeze-dried.We used six-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, descendants of breeders originally obtained through Taconic Farms, Germantown, NY, USA) and normotensive Wistar (W) rats, bred at the Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia, weighing about 300 g.

They were maintained in temperature and humidity controlled rooms on a twelve-hour light-dark cycle.The experimental protocol was approved by the Ethic Committee of the Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia (number 0312-1/10), according to the National Law on Animal Welfare.For the direct haemodynamic measurements, after bolus injection of TE or vehicle, all rats were anesthetized with 35 mg/kg b.w.Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured through a femoral artery catheter (PE–50, Clay-Adams Parsippany, NY, USA), connected to a physiological data acquisition system (Cardiomax III-TCR, Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH, USA).The left carotid artery was catheterized with a thermo sensor, which was coupled to Cardiomax III for the determination of cardiac output.Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR, mmHg × min × kg/mL) was calculated from MAP and CI (assuming that the mean right atrial pressure is zero).For regional blood flow measurements left carotid artery was gently separated from the surrounding tissue.Blood samples obtained by puncture of the abdominal aorta were collected under anaesthesia, 30 minutes after TE or vehicle application, into tubes containing lithium-heparin (Li-heparin, Sigma, USA) as an anticoagulant.Liver and kidney tissues were removed immediately on ice, rinsed with cold saline, weighed, and then cut into portions, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80°C for the later estimation of protein content and enzymatic antioxidant defence.Plasma, previously stored at −20°C, was defrosted and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations prepared for analysis.On the day of analysis, tissue was homogenized and prepared for the assay procedure according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Antioxidant enzyme activities of the erythrocytes (e) as well as liver (L) and kidney (k) homogenates were measured by following the spectrophotometric methods: catalase (CAT) was determined as previously described [18], glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was measured according to Paglia and Valentine [19], and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined according to McCord and Fridovich [20].Correlations between obtained parameters in normotensive as well as in hypertensive rats were also examined, and values < 0.05 were considered significant (Statistica 8.0 for Windows).As expected, MAP, HR, and TPVR of SHR-C were significantly higher compared to the values of these parameters in W-C group ( ), but without changes of CI.Despite marked reduction of MAP, RVR remained nonsignificantly changed due to acute TE treatment (Figure 2(d)) but still showed a tendency to get closer to W groups.The expression of liver HO-1 (Figure 3(b)) was lower in hypertensive than in normotensive rats (1.32 ± 0.10 versus 1.62 ± 0.10 mg/g tissue, ).TE treatment significantly increased the content of this enzyme in hypertensive rats (SHR-TE, 1.66 ± 0.09, versus SHR-C, 1.32 ± 0.10 mg/g tissue, ).On the contrary, the application of TE into normotensive rats resulted in a prominent decrease of quantity of this enzyme (W-C: 1.62 ± 0.10 versus W-TE: 1.38 ± 0.04 mg/g tissue, ).Acute TE treatment significantly reduced the level of p-TBARS in SHR-TE group compared to SHR-C ( , Figure 4(a)).On the contrary, in normotensive rats the value of p-TBARS became almost significantly elevated in response to TE treatment ( , Figure 4(a)).The kidney TBARS level was significantly lower in SHR-C group compared to the W-C ( Figure 4(c)), and TE had no effects on it, in either hypertensive or normotensive rats.SOD, CAT, and GPx enzyme activities in the erythrocytes, liver, and kidney from all experimental animals are shown in Figure 5.TE treatment significantly increased the kidney SOD activity in the SHR (SHR-TE versus SHR-C: ), but not in the W rats (Figure 5(g)).In contrast, CAT activity in kidney (Figure 5(h)) was found to be increased in both W-TE and SHR-C compared to W-C ( , , resp.).Bolus injection of TE induced a significant elevation of kidney GPx activities in normotensive rats ( , Figure 5(i)).In the liver homogenates the activity of this antioxidant enzyme was unchanged in both W-TE and SHR-TE groups compared to their controls (Figure 5(f)).Also, MAP and TPVR showed strong negative correlation with regard to L-TBARS and HO-1 expression and activity in hypertensive but not in normotensive rats.In addition, in the group of hypertensive rats, we found a significant positive intercorrelation between L-TBARS, quantity of plasma and liver HO-1, and bilirubin concentrations, followed by strong and negative intercorrelation between these parameters with p-TBARS, while in the kidney we have not found a correlation between the examined parameters (Table 2).Table 3 represents the correlation of antioxidant enzyme activity and systemic haemodynamic parameters, with oxidative status in hypertensive and normotensive rats.= 0.155 SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; W: Wistar rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; MAP: mean arterial pressure; TPVR: total peripheral vascular resistance; L-TBARS, p-TBARS, and k-TBARS: liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; quantity of L-HO-1 and p-HO-1: liver and plasma heme oxigenase-1 enzyme; BIL-D: direct bilirubin; BIL-T: total bilirubin.= 0.153 SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; W: Wistar rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; L-TBARS, p-TBARS, and k-TBARS: liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; quantity of L-HO-1 and p-HO-1: liver and plasma heme oxigenase-1 enzyme; BIL-D: direct bilirubin; BIL-T: total bilirubin.= 0.014 SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; W: Wistar rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; MAP: mean arterial pressure; TPVR: total peripheral vascular resistance; L-TBARS, p-TBARS, and k-TBARS: liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; BIL-D: direct bilirubin; e-CAT and k-CAT: erythrocyte catalase and kidney catalase; k-SOD: kidney superoxide dismutase; k-GPx: kidney glutathione peroxidase.Earlier, we suggested that a powerful vasodilator molecule, nitric oxide, is not liable for normalization of blood pressure in TE treated SHR [7].Here, we hypothesized that induction of HO-1, due to TE treatment, may contribute to powerful blood pressure-lowering effect and reduction of systemic oxidative stress in SHR.In support of our hypothesis are the results by Jin et al. that identified rosmarinic acid as an inducer of HO-1 expression by increasing ROS production in vitro [22].Considering all the above and the composition of used TE, we suggest that this strong induction of HO-1 in SHR represents the response of the liver to TE-induced increase of ROS production.This assumption is supported with significant positive correlation between liver ROS measured by TBARS and the level of HO-1 in hypertensive rats.In the present study, wild thyme induced significant and pronounced systemic vasorelaxation in both hypertensive and normotensive rats compared to vehicle, but only in hypertensive rats did such relaxation significantly and positively correlate with markedly reduced mean arterial pressure.As expected, results from SHR showed increased TPVR, CVR, and RVR accompanied with significant elevation of blood pressure and HR, without changes of CI, CBF, or RBF compared to Wistar rats.Our results in hypertensive rats treated with TE are in favour of previously obtained findings [24–26] that plant polyphenols decrease arterial pressure in SHR.The induction of HO-1 that we found in hypertensive rats was in significant negative correlation with the TPVR, indicating that HO-1 generated CO could be accountable for the intensive systemic vasorelaxation and the decrease of blood pressure that we observed in SHR-TE group.These results are in accordance with reports in which, like NO, HO-derived CO serves as a vasodilator to lower blood pressure, regardless of whether it operates via cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent pathways, thus explaining a number of the potential actions of CO regarding the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases [28].This vasodilator effect may also contribute to the improvement of regional haemodynamics in the carotid artery of hypertensive rats.At physiologic oxygen pressure, bilirubin surpasses α-tocopherol, the most potent protector against lipid peroxidation.Also, there was significant negative intercorrelation between the p-TBARS and liver HO-1, as well as BIL-D, confirming the antioxidant defence properties of these endogenous products.Interestingly, the liver HO system was nearly significantly suppressed in W-TE rats and that might be a possible reason for a moderate increase of plasma lipid peroxidation in this group.Reduced activity of erythrocyte GPx from SHR in comparison to W rats failed to become corrected with TE, but TE induced the enhancement of erythrocyte CAT activity almost threefold and therefore protected SHR against hydrogen peroxide induced systemic oxidative stress.We did not measure the expression of previously mentioned enzymes, but the activity of k-SOD that we observed was higher after TE in SHR, but not in W rats.These data indicate that the increased activity of the k-CAT and k-GPx could have been a compensatory mechanism for the prevention of moderate plasma lipid peroxidation that we obtained in W-TE rats.On the other hand, we found decreased activity of the kidney GPx enzyme in hypertensive rats after TE.However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that strong and significant hypotensive and antioxidative activity of aqueous extract from Thymus serpyllum L.

in hypertensive rats, at least partially, resulted due to targeting heme oxygenase system.The authors gratefully acknowledge the professional English language assistance provided to them by Vladana Ivanov, M.A.This work was supported by grant from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia (Project no. .

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