Share on Pinterest Mariela Naplatanova/Stocksy United Thyme is an herb from the mint family that you probably recognize from your spice set, but it’s so much more than an afterthought ingredient.A 2014 study found that an extract was able to significantly lower heart rate in rats with high blood pressure.In one older 2006 study , a combination of thyme and ivy leaves helped to alleviate coughing and other symptoms of acute bronchitis.A 2018 study found a combination of thyme and primula extracts to reduce inflammation and mucous in an animal model.Luckily, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that thyme is packed with helpful nutrients, including: vitamin A.For example, 1 teaspoon of thyme has 1.28 milligrams of vitamin C — according to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), that’s only 1 percent of your daily needs.A 2017 study showed that thyme may be effective at controlling gray mold rot in guava fruit.Pests The Environmental Protection Agency says that thymol, a kind of thyme oil, is also an ingredient in many pesticides — both outdoor and indoor — and is commonly used to target: bacteria.other animal pests A 2021 study showed thyme essential oil to be effective against adult mosquitoes and their larvae.You can use thyme essential oil in an aromatherapy diffuser to potentially reap the benefits of its mood-boosting properties, though more research is needed.In a 2013 animal study , carvacrol was shown to increase concentrations of serotonin and dopamine, two hormones that regulate mood.Thyme is a main ingredient in this tasty take on pesto sauce, which you can use as a condiment or add to pasta or rice.A 2012 study indicated that thyme extract might prolong the stability of sunflower oil at different temperatures as well as provide antioxidant effects.A 2013 in vitro study found that thyme oil showed potential as a natural preservative of food products against several common foodborne bacteria that cause human illness, even at low concentrations.In addition, a 2011 in vitro study found thyme oil effective against resistant strains of Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Escherichia, and Pseudomonas bacteria.A 2021 in vitro study found very low doses of thyme essential oil to be fungicidal against Candida albicans, a common cause of yeast infections, even when the fungus was resistant to the prescription medication fluconazole. .

Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris): Benefits, Side Effects, Preparation

The plant contains compounds like thymol (a plant-based phenol specific to thyme) that is known to control or neutralize certain bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections.Thyme is touted by proponents as a natural treatment for an almost encyclopedic array of unrelated health conditions, including:.Thyme is also believed to stimulate appetite, curb inflammation, boost immune function, and repel insects.Thyme is believed by practitioners of aromatherapy to exert anxiolytic (anxiety-reducing) effects, a property supported by a 2014 study in the Journal of Acute Disease.According to a 2018 study in International Immunopharmacology, the application of thymol to the skin of people with atopic dermatitis has a direct physiological response.In addition to inhibiting inflammatory compounds known as cytokines, thymol helps shrink the swollen dermal and epidermal skin layers characteristic of dermatitis.This all-too-common complication occurs when swollen tissues allow S. aureus to move from the surface of the skin and establish reservoirs beneath it.According to a 2013 study in the European Respiratory Journal, thymol acts on receptors on the tongue, mouth, throat, and nasal passages in a way that may suppress coughs.In a 2017 study in Scientific Reports, chickens inoculated with the disease-causing bacteria Clostridium perfringens were fed a blend of essential oils containing 25% thymol and 25% carvacrol (another potent phenol found in thyme).Thyme oil mixed with water has long been used as a remedy for bad breath and the prevention of gingivitis and gum disease.There is also evidence that it may treat oral thrush, a common infection caused by the fungi Candida albicans.According to a 2015 study in BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, thymol was able to suppress the growth of C.

albicans and other Candida strains in a test tube.The researchers believe that thymol inhibited the production of ergosterol, a cholesterol-like substance needed to foster fungal growth.Thymol (derived from thyme via alcohol extraction) is widely used as an active ingredient in many commercial brands of mouthwash, including Listerine.Hypotension, an abnormal drop in blood pressure, can occur if thyme oil is used in excess.Allergy to thyme oil is also common, especially in people sensitive to plants in the mint family (including oregano, lavender, and sage).Thyme can slow blood clotting and may amplify the effects of anticoagulants like Coumadin (warfarin) or Plavix (clopidogrel), causing easy bleeding and bruising.As such, thyme oil or supplements should be stopped at least two weeks before scheduled surgery to prevent excessive bleeding.Thyme oil or supplements should also be used with caution in people on high blood pressure medications.Fresh thyme generally lasts for around a week in the refrigerator; its leaves will begin to turn black when it gets old.Thyme essential oil is typically sold in light-resistant amber or cobalt blue bottles.The best oils will generally include the plant's Latin name (in this case, Thymus vulgaris), the country of origin, and the extraction method.You can store the essential oil in the refrigerator or in a cool, dry room away from direct sunlight.Resist adding extra thyme oil to topical preparations if they don't smell strong enough.You can also use a commercial diffuser or vaporizer, or simply add a few drops to a simmering pot of water.It is a great addition to pork, lamb, or chicken marinades too, and it gives an aromatic boost to roasted vegetables and potatoes that's reminiscent of pine and camphor (and in the case of lemon thyme, citrusy as well).Thyme can be infused into orange, lemon, or raspberry teas and served either hot or cold.It can even add a surprising floral note when added to whipped cream and baked custards.Lemon and thyme pair beautifully, whether in a roast chicken recipe or a lemony panna cotta. .

THYME: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions

Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme.Clinical trial in acute bronchitis with a fixed combination of fluid extracts of thyme herb and ivy leaves.13th Annual Symposium on Complementary Health Care, 12th-14th December, 2006, University of Exeter, UK.Cuzzolin, L. and Benoni, G. Attitudes and knowledge toward natural products safety in the pharmacy setting: an Italian study.Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A.

N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L.

Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310.Ernst E, Marz R, and Sieder C. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., and Busch, R. Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of thyme and primrose root in patients with acute bronchitis.Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., and Busch, R. Evaluation of the non-inferiority of a fixed combination of thyme fluid- and primrose root extract in comparison to a fixed combination of thyme fluid extract and primrose root tincture in patients with acute bronchitis.Common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as employed for the ancient methods of embalming.Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough.Kemmerich, B., Eberhardt, R., and Stammer, H.

Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough.Kohlert, C., Abel, G., Schmid, E., and Veit, M. Determination of thymol in human plasma by automated headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic analysis.[Investigation of contact allergies in 100 cases of ulcus cruris (author's transl)].Lorenzi, S., Placucci, F., Vincenzi, C., Bardazzi, F., and Tosti, A. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thymol.Mackiewicz, B., Skorska, C., Dutkiewicz, J., Michnar, M., Milanowski, J., Prazmo, Z., Krysinska-Traczyk, E., and Cisak, E.

Allergic alveolitis due to herb dust exposure.Martinez-Gonzalez, M. C., Goday Bujan, J. J., Martinez, Gomez W., and Fonseca, Capdevila E. Concomitant allergic contact dermatitis due to Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme).Non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study confirms the benefit and safety of a syrup made of extracts from thyme and ivy leaves].Takada, M., Agata, I., Sakamoto, M., Yagi, N., and Hayashi, N.

On the metabolic detoxication of thymol in rabbit and man.Tognolini, M., Barocelli, E., Ballabeni, V., Bruni, R., Bianchi, A., Chiavarini, M., and Impicciatore, M. Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.Twetman, S. and Petersson, L.

G. Interdental caries incidence and progression in relation to mutans streptococci suppression after chlorhexidine-thymol varnish treatments in schoolchildren.Agbor GA, Oben JE, Ngogang JY, et al.

Antioxidant capacity of some herbs/spices from cameroon: a comparative study of two methods.Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema.Benito M, Jorro G, Morales C, et al.

Labiatae allergy: systemic reactions due to ingestion of oregano and thyme.Thymus vulgaris essential oil: chemical composition and antimicrobial activity.Caverzan J, Mussi L, Sufi B, et al. A new phytocosmetic preparation from Thymus vulgaris stimulates adipogenesis and controls skin aging process: In vitro studies and topical effects in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.Dursun N, Liman N, Ozyazgan I, et al.

Role of thymus oil in burn wound healing.Ernst E, Marz R, Sieder C. A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.Erol S, Aydin B, Dilli D, Okumus N, Zenciroglu A, Gündüz M. An interesting newborn case of fructose 1-6 diphosphatase deficiency triggered after thyme juice ingestion.Giordani R, Regli P, Kaloustian J, et al.

Antifungal effect of various essential oils against Candida albicans.Potentiation of antifungal action of amphotericin B by essential oil from Thymus vulgaris.Golec M, Skorska C, Mackiewicz B, et al. Respiratory effects of exposure to dust from herbs.Grande S, Bogani P, de Saizieu A, et al.

Vasomodulating potential of mediterranean wild plant extracts.Hersch-Martinez P, Leanos-Miranda BE, Solorzano-Santos F. Antibacterial effects of commercial essential oils over locally prevalent pathogenic strains in Mexico.Kitajima J, Ishikawa T, Urabe A, Satoh M. Monoterpenoids and their glycosides from the leaf of thyme.Meister A, Bernhardt G, Christoffel V, Buschauer A. Antispasmodic activity of Thymus vulgaris extract on the isolated guinea-pig trachea: discrimination between drug and ethanol effects.Park BS, Choi WS, Kim JH, et al.

Monoterpenes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as potential mosquito repellents.Pina-Vaz C, Goncalves Rodrigues A, Pinto E, et al. Antifungal activity of Thymus oils and their major compounds.Proestos C, Chorianopoulos N, Nychas GJ, Komaitis M.

RP-HPLC analysis of the phenolic compounds of plant extracts.Ramsewak RS, Nair MG, Stommel M, Selanders L. In vitro antagonistic activity of monoterpenes and their mixtures against 'toe nail fungus' pathogens.Sakkas H, Papadopoulou C.

Antimicrobial activity of Basil, Oregano and Thyme essential oils.Sasaki K, Wada K, Tanaka Y, et al. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its constituents increase the activities of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in mouse liver.A controlled trial of aromatherapy for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia.Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.Vigo E, Cepeda A, Gualillo O, Perez-Fernandez R. In-vitro anti-inflammatory effect of Eucalyptus globulus and Thymus vulgaris: nitric oxide inhibition in J774A.1 murine macrophages.Watanabe J, Shinmoto H, Tsushida T.

Coumarin and flavone derivatives from estragon and thyme as inhibitors of chemical mediator release from RBL-2H3 Cells.Zava DT, Dollbaum CM, Blen M. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices. .


Rosmarinic acid, the predominant phenolic compound of thyme extract (TE- Thymus serpyllum L.) possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities and is known as antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, antinflammatory and immunostimulating agent.The objective of this study was to exemine the effects of bolus injection of TE on sistolic, diastolic, and puls pressure and oxidative stress in the model of essential hypertension.Our results showed that in SHR, TE induces a normalization of arterial blood pressure and circulating level of TBARS, thus promoting rosmarinic acid, as an antihypertensive and antioxidant agent. .

Thyme: Health Benefits, Nutrients per Serving, Preparation

Research also suggests that it may have analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory properties that can help with skin conditions, pain from bug bites, rheumatoid arthritis, and more.While thyme is commonly used to flavor food, this herb has been used since ancient times for different health and medicinal benefits and as a preservative.Thyme oil is frequently used in mouthwashes to help with bad breath, prevent gingivitis, and help treat oral pathogens.Studies have found that thyme supplements offered pain relief from menstrual cramps similar to that provided by ibuprofen. .

Thyme: Benefits, history, and forms

One study from 2010 suggests that thymol can reduce bacterial resistance to common drugs, including penicillin.A team at Chungbuk National University in South Korea reported that a combination of thymol, alpha-terpinene, and carvacrol was effective in killing off tiger mosquito larvae.Researchers at the University of Belgrade, Serbia, found that an aqueous extract obtained from wild thyme reduced blood pressure in tests on rats.They reported that thyme oil, even at low concentrations, showed potential as a natural preservative of food products against several common foodborne bacteria that cause human illness.A study carried out in Lisbon, Portugal, found that extracts of mastic thyme might protect people from colon cancers.Researchers at the University of Turin, Italy, found that essential oil of thyme significantly enhanced the destruction of the C. albicans fungus in the human body.Scientists from Warsaw, Poland, examined whether thyme extract might prolong the stability of sunflower oil at different temperatures.“A 3 percent thyme essential oil cream could represent a relatively economical and easily available opportunity to treat and heal mild to moderate cases of fungal infections.”.Its antibacterial effect proved stronger than that of standard concentrations of benzoyl peroxide, the active ingredient in most acne creams and washes.Benzoyl peroxide also causes a burning sensation and irritation on the skin, which means that a thyme tincture might be a solution to acne that leads to fewer unwanted effects.


Thyme Can Reduce Blood Pressure and Lower the Risk of Heart

Your skin can also benefit from using thyme essential oil to clear infections and treat the symptoms of acne.The journal Plant Foods for Human Nutrition reported that the antioxidative properties of thyme help lower blood pressure.In animal studies, consuming thyme extracts helped reduce hypertension and lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Another study found that consuming thyme extracts helped to reduce blood pressure and lower heart rate.Experts suggest that if you have high blood pressure, consume 2-3 cups of thyme tea daily to help control hypertension. .

Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Response to Wild Thyme

We found that wild thyme (a spice plant, rich in polyphenolic compounds) induced a significant decrease of blood pressure and vascular resistance in hypertensive rats.Next product of heme oxidation, bilirubin (a chain-breaking antioxidant that acts as a lipid peroxyl radical scavenger), becomes significantly increased after wild thyme treatment and induces the reduction of plasma lipid peroxidation in hypertensive, but not in normotensive rats.Hypertension is recognized as a highly significant risk factor, and many effective antihypertensive drugs are developed, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor antagonists, diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channels blockers, and nitric oxide (NO) donors [2, 3].Yet, for various reasons, hypertension is still a poorly controlled disorder, even in countries with very efficient preventive medical services.It should also be noted that there is a growing body of evidence suggesting the effectiveness of alternative therapeutic approaches in the treatment of various disorders, including hypertension.Thus, epidemiological evidence suggests the existence of a negative correlation between consumption of polyphenol-rich foods (fruits, vegetables, cocoa, etc.).Thymus serpyllum L. (wild thyme, TE) has traditionally been used as a spice plant, whose aqueous extract is rich in the polyphenolic compounds [7] that are considered to be responsible for their antioxidant effects.Also, the antihypertensive effect of essential oils from Chinese medicinal plants was confirmed in experimental studies [8].Similarly, water extracts of plants from Lamiaceae family, rich in phenolic acids, decreased systolic blood pressure after subcutaneous administration in conscious stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats [9] and inhibit rabbit lung angiotensin I-converting enzyme in vitro [10].In addition, our previous study showed that aqueous extract obtained from TE induces powerful NO-independent systemic vasodilatation in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) [7].Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring to form the water-soluble 1-carbon fragment as carbon monoxide (CO), iron, and a biliverdin [14], which is reduced by biliverdin reductase to bilirubin (lipophilic linear tetrapyrrole), a compound with potent antioxidant capacity, abundant in blood plasma [15].The CO, generated in equimolar concentrations to biliverdin during heme oxidation by HO, like NO, inhibits platelet aggregation and acts as a vasodilator when bioavailability of NO is limited [16].This relaxation of vascular smooth muscle cells results from activation of pathways, including the stimulation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, opening of calcium activated channel, inhibition of cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase, or blocking the production of constrictor substances like endothelin [17].Furthermore, the increased ROS production that was observed in hypertensive animals and humans could be reduced by treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetics or antioxidants, resulting in the improvement of vascular and renal function, regression of vascular remodelling, and reduction of blood pressure [11].Considering all the above, we hypothesized that TE regulates blood pressure and oxidative stress of SHR through a mechanism that could involve HO-1.Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the ability of TE treatment to upregulate the expression and activity of inducible form of HO-1 and its correlation with antihypertensive as well as antioxidant responses of SHR.Briefly, TE was extracted by pouring 200 mL of boiled distilled water over the herbal samples (10 g) at room temperature, filtered through a tea strainer, and freeze-dried.We used six-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, descendants of breeders originally obtained through Taconic Farms, Germantown, NY, USA) and normotensive Wistar (W) rats, bred at the Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia, weighing about 300 g.

They were maintained in temperature and humidity controlled rooms on a twelve-hour light-dark cycle.The experimental protocol was approved by the Ethic Committee of the Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, Serbia (number 0312-1/10), according to the National Law on Animal Welfare.For the direct haemodynamic measurements, after bolus injection of TE or vehicle, all rats were anesthetized with 35 mg/kg b.w.Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured through a femoral artery catheter (PE–50, Clay-Adams Parsippany, NY, USA), connected to a physiological data acquisition system (Cardiomax III-TCR, Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH, USA).The left carotid artery was catheterized with a thermo sensor, which was coupled to Cardiomax III for the determination of cardiac output.Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR, mmHg × min × kg/mL) was calculated from MAP and CI (assuming that the mean right atrial pressure is zero).For regional blood flow measurements left carotid artery was gently separated from the surrounding tissue.Blood samples obtained by puncture of the abdominal aorta were collected under anaesthesia, 30 minutes after TE or vehicle application, into tubes containing lithium-heparin (Li-heparin, Sigma, USA) as an anticoagulant.Liver and kidney tissues were removed immediately on ice, rinsed with cold saline, weighed, and then cut into portions, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and stored at −80°C for the later estimation of protein content and enzymatic antioxidant defence.Plasma, previously stored at −20°C, was defrosted and in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations prepared for analysis.On the day of analysis, tissue was homogenized and prepared for the assay procedure according to the manufacturer’s instructions.Antioxidant enzyme activities of the erythrocytes (e) as well as liver (L) and kidney (k) homogenates were measured by following the spectrophotometric methods: catalase (CAT) was determined as previously described [18], glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was measured according to Paglia and Valentine [19], and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined according to McCord and Fridovich [20].Correlations between obtained parameters in normotensive as well as in hypertensive rats were also examined, and values < 0.05 were considered significant (Statistica 8.0 for Windows).As expected, MAP, HR, and TPVR of SHR-C were significantly higher compared to the values of these parameters in W-C group ( ), but without changes of CI.Despite marked reduction of MAP, RVR remained nonsignificantly changed due to acute TE treatment (Figure 2(d)) but still showed a tendency to get closer to W groups.The expression of liver HO-1 (Figure 3(b)) was lower in hypertensive than in normotensive rats (1.32 ± 0.10 versus 1.62 ± 0.10 mg/g tissue, ).TE treatment significantly increased the content of this enzyme in hypertensive rats (SHR-TE, 1.66 ± 0.09, versus SHR-C, 1.32 ± 0.10 mg/g tissue, ).On the contrary, the application of TE into normotensive rats resulted in a prominent decrease of quantity of this enzyme (W-C: 1.62 ± 0.10 versus W-TE: 1.38 ± 0.04 mg/g tissue, ).Acute TE treatment significantly reduced the level of p-TBARS in SHR-TE group compared to SHR-C ( , Figure 4(a)).On the contrary, in normotensive rats the value of p-TBARS became almost significantly elevated in response to TE treatment ( , Figure 4(a)).The kidney TBARS level was significantly lower in SHR-C group compared to the W-C ( Figure 4(c)), and TE had no effects on it, in either hypertensive or normotensive rats.SOD, CAT, and GPx enzyme activities in the erythrocytes, liver, and kidney from all experimental animals are shown in Figure 5.TE treatment significantly increased the kidney SOD activity in the SHR (SHR-TE versus SHR-C: ), but not in the W rats (Figure 5(g)).In contrast, CAT activity in kidney (Figure 5(h)) was found to be increased in both W-TE and SHR-C compared to W-C ( , , resp.).Bolus injection of TE induced a significant elevation of kidney GPx activities in normotensive rats ( , Figure 5(i)).In the liver homogenates the activity of this antioxidant enzyme was unchanged in both W-TE and SHR-TE groups compared to their controls (Figure 5(f)).Also, MAP and TPVR showed strong negative correlation with regard to L-TBARS and HO-1 expression and activity in hypertensive but not in normotensive rats.In addition, in the group of hypertensive rats, we found a significant positive intercorrelation between L-TBARS, quantity of plasma and liver HO-1, and bilirubin concentrations, followed by strong and negative intercorrelation between these parameters with p-TBARS, while in the kidney we have not found a correlation between the examined parameters (Table 2).Table 3 represents the correlation of antioxidant enzyme activity and systemic haemodynamic parameters, with oxidative status in hypertensive and normotensive rats.= 0.155 SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; W: Wistar rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; MAP: mean arterial pressure; TPVR: total peripheral vascular resistance; L-TBARS, p-TBARS, and k-TBARS: liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; quantity of L-HO-1 and p-HO-1: liver and plasma heme oxigenase-1 enzyme; BIL-D: direct bilirubin; BIL-T: total bilirubin.= 0.153 SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; W: Wistar rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; L-TBARS, p-TBARS, and k-TBARS: liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; quantity of L-HO-1 and p-HO-1: liver and plasma heme oxigenase-1 enzyme; BIL-D: direct bilirubin; BIL-T: total bilirubin.= 0.014 SHR: spontaneously hypertensive rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; W: Wistar rats that received vehicle or thyme extract; MAP: mean arterial pressure; TPVR: total peripheral vascular resistance; L-TBARS, p-TBARS, and k-TBARS: liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, and kidney thiobarbituric acid reactive substance; BIL-D: direct bilirubin; e-CAT and k-CAT: erythrocyte catalase and kidney catalase; k-SOD: kidney superoxide dismutase; k-GPx: kidney glutathione peroxidase.Earlier, we suggested that a powerful vasodilator molecule, nitric oxide, is not liable for normalization of blood pressure in TE treated SHR [7].Here, we hypothesized that induction of HO-1, due to TE treatment, may contribute to powerful blood pressure-lowering effect and reduction of systemic oxidative stress in SHR.In support of our hypothesis are the results by Jin et al. that identified rosmarinic acid as an inducer of HO-1 expression by increasing ROS production in vitro [22].Considering all the above and the composition of used TE, we suggest that this strong induction of HO-1 in SHR represents the response of the liver to TE-induced increase of ROS production.This assumption is supported with significant positive correlation between liver ROS measured by TBARS and the level of HO-1 in hypertensive rats.In the present study, wild thyme induced significant and pronounced systemic vasorelaxation in both hypertensive and normotensive rats compared to vehicle, but only in hypertensive rats did such relaxation significantly and positively correlate with markedly reduced mean arterial pressure.As expected, results from SHR showed increased TPVR, CVR, and RVR accompanied with significant elevation of blood pressure and HR, without changes of CI, CBF, or RBF compared to Wistar rats.Our results in hypertensive rats treated with TE are in favour of previously obtained findings [24–26] that plant polyphenols decrease arterial pressure in SHR.The induction of HO-1 that we found in hypertensive rats was in significant negative correlation with the TPVR, indicating that HO-1 generated CO could be accountable for the intensive systemic vasorelaxation and the decrease of blood pressure that we observed in SHR-TE group.These results are in accordance with reports in which, like NO, HO-derived CO serves as a vasodilator to lower blood pressure, regardless of whether it operates via cGMP-dependent or cGMP-independent pathways, thus explaining a number of the potential actions of CO regarding the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases [28].This vasodilator effect may also contribute to the improvement of regional haemodynamics in the carotid artery of hypertensive rats.At physiologic oxygen pressure, bilirubin surpasses α-tocopherol, the most potent protector against lipid peroxidation.Also, there was significant negative intercorrelation between the p-TBARS and liver HO-1, as well as BIL-D, confirming the antioxidant defence properties of these endogenous products.Interestingly, the liver HO system was nearly significantly suppressed in W-TE rats and that might be a possible reason for a moderate increase of plasma lipid peroxidation in this group.Reduced activity of erythrocyte GPx from SHR in comparison to W rats failed to become corrected with TE, but TE induced the enhancement of erythrocyte CAT activity almost threefold and therefore protected SHR against hydrogen peroxide induced systemic oxidative stress.We did not measure the expression of previously mentioned enzymes, but the activity of k-SOD that we observed was higher after TE in SHR, but not in W rats.These data indicate that the increased activity of the k-CAT and k-GPx could have been a compensatory mechanism for the prevention of moderate plasma lipid peroxidation that we obtained in W-TE rats.On the other hand, we found decreased activity of the kidney GPx enzyme in hypertensive rats after TE.However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that strong and significant hypotensive and antioxidative activity of aqueous extract from Thymus serpyllum L.

in hypertensive rats, at least partially, resulted due to targeting heme oxygenase system.The authors gratefully acknowledge the professional English language assistance provided to them by Vladana Ivanov, M.A.This work was supported by grant from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia (Project no. .

Thyme: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions

Abirami, C. P. and Venugopal, P. V. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.Evaluation of residues of essential oil components in honey after different anti-varroa treatments.Adzet, T., Vila, R., and Canigueral, S. Chromatographic analysis of polyphenols of some Iberian Thymus.Influence of growth regulators in biomass production and volatile profile of in vitro plantlets of Thymus vulgaris L.

J Agric Food Chem 7-22-2009;57(14):6392-6395.Agnihotri, S. and Vaidya, A.

D. A novel approach to study antibacterial properties of volatile components of selected Indian medicinal herbs.Ait, M'barek L., Ait, Mouse H., Jaafari, A., Aboufatima, R., Benharref, A., Kamal, M., Benard, J., El Abbadi, N., Bensalah, M., Gamouh, A., Chait, A., Dalal, A., and Zyad, A.

Cytotoxic effect of essential oil of thyme (Thymus broussonettii) on the IGR-OV1 tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy.ALBERTSEN, K. and HEINTZELMANN, F. Mercuric chloride and thymol precipitation in plasma and serum.ALBERTSEN, K. and HEINTZELMANN, F. The influence of heparin on the precipitation of serum proteins by mercuric chloride and thymol.Ali-Shtayeh, M. S., Al Nuri, M.

A., Yaghmour, R. M., and Faidi, Y.

R. Antimicrobial activity of Micromeria nervosa from the Palestinian area.Alonso, W. R. and Croteau, R. Purification and characterization of the monoterpene cyclase gamma-terpinene synthase from Thymus vulgaris.Alwas-Danowska, H. M., Huysmans, M.

C., and Verdonschot, E. H.

Effects of alternating and direct electrical current application on the odontoblastic layer in human teeth: an in vitro study.Alzoreky, N. S.

and Nakahara, K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia.Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H.

Larvicidal effects of various essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex larvae (Diptera, Culicidae).Amer, A. and Mehlhorn, H. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.Effects of phenolic dental medicaments on prostaglandin synthesis by microsomes of bovine tooth pulp and rabbit kidney medulla.Andre, C., Gharbi, T., and Guillaume, Y. C. A novel stationary phase based on amino derivatized nanotubes for HPLC separations: theoretical and practical aspects.Apak, R., Guclu, K., Ozyurek, M., Esin, Karademir S., and Ercag, E. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.Araujo, A.

M., Naspitz, G. M., Chelotti, A., and Cai, S. Effect of Cervitec on mutans streptococci in plaque and on caries formation on occlusal fissures of erupting permanent molars.Ariana, A., Ebadi, R., and Tahmasebi, G. Laboratory evaluation of some plant essences to control Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae).Essential oils in infectious gynaecological disease: a statistical study of 658 cases.ASHFORD, A., SHARPE, C. J., and STEPHENS, F. F.

Thymol basic ethers and related compounds: central nervous system depressant action.Astani, A., Reichling, J., and Schnitzler, P. Comparative study on the antiviral activity of selected monoterpenes derived from essential oils.Astudillo, A., Hong, E., Bye, R., and Navarrete, A. Antispasmodic activity of extracts and compounds of Acalypha phleoides Cav.Austgulen, L. T., Solheim, E., and Scheline, R. R. Metabolism in rats of p-cymene derivatives: carvacrol and thymol.A., and Basaran, N.

The effects of thyme volatiles on the induction of DNA damage by the heterocyclic amine IQ and mitomycin C. Mutat.Res 3-7-2005;581(1-2):43-53.Azaz, A.

D., Irtem, H. A., Kurkcuoglu, M., and Baser, K. H.

Composition and the in vitro antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of some Thymus species.Azirak, S. and Rencuzogullari, E. The in vivo genotoxic effects of carvacrol and thymol in rat bone marrow cells.Azizan, A.

and Blevins, R. D. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity testing of six chemicals associated with the pungent properties of specific spices as revealed by the Ames Salmonella/microsomal assay.Azuma, Y., Ozasa, N., Ueda, Y., and Takagi, N. Pharmacological studies on the anti-inflammatory action of phenolic compounds.A., Akhavan, M. M., Toussy, G., and Mousavi, S. Antispasmodic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris on the guinea-pig ileum.Effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on root caries in a geriatric population: a randomized double-blind clinical trial.Effect of an antibacterial varnish and amine-fluoride/stannous fluoride (AmF/SnF2) toothpaste on Streptococcus mutans counts in saliva and dental plaque of children.Baranauskiene, R., Venskutonis, P.

R., Viskelis, P., and Dambrauskiene, E. Influence of nitrogen fertilizers on the yield and composition of thyme (Thymus vulgaris).Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat.Bazylko, A.

and Strzelecka, H. A HPTLC densitometric determination of luteolin in Thymus vulgaris and its extracts.Beddows, C. G., Jagait, C., and Kelly, M.

J. Preservation of alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil by herbs and spices.Beer, A. M., Lukanov, J., and Sagorchev, P.

Effect of Thymol on the spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscles.Impact of thymol in thyme extracts on their antispasmodic action and ciliary clearance.Behnia, M., Haghighi, A., Komeylizadeh, H., Tabaei, S. J., and Abadi, A. Inhibitory effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris extracts on in vitro growth of Entamoeba histolytica.Belan, P. V., Verkhratskii, A. N., Pronchuk, N. F., and Tepikin, A.

V. [Use of a microfluorometric method for measuring free calcium in the cytoplasm of isolated cultured rat cardiomyocytes].USE OF THYMOL AS AN ACARICIDAL AGENT AGAINST INFESTATION OF FUNGUS CULTURES AND MYCOTHECA WITH ACARI (MITES).Berova, N., Stransky, L., and Krasteva, M. Studies on contact dermatitis in stomatological staff.Bevilacqua, A., Corbo, M.

R., and Sinigaglia, M. Combined effects of modified atmosphere packaging and thymol for prolonging the shelf life of caprese salad.Mechanism of transport enhancement of LHRH through porcine epidermis by terpenes and iontophoresis: permeability and lipid extraction studies.Bi, X., Guo, N., Jin, J., Liu, J., Feng, H., Shi, J., Xiang, H., Wu, X., Dong, J., Hu, H., Yan, S., Yu, C., Wang, X., Deng, X., and Yu, L. The global gene expression profile of the model fungus Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by thymol.Influence of carvacrol on proliferation and survival of porcine lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells in vitro.Bittar, E. E. and Brown, D. The influence of thymol on the sodium efflux in barnacle muscle fibres.Bizhang, M., Seemann, R., Romhild, G., Chun, Y.

H., Umland, N., Lang, H., and Zimmer, S. Effect of a 40% chlorhexidine varnish on demineralization of dentin surfaces in situ.Bluma, R., Amaiden, M.

R., and Etcheverry, M. Screening of Argentine plant extracts: impact on growth parameters and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Aspergillus section Flavi.Bonjar, G. H.

Inhibition of Clotrimazole-resistant Candida albicans by plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine.Boskabady, M. H., Aslani, M. R., and Kiani, S. Relaxant effect of Thymus vulgaris on guinea-pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s).Botelho, M.

A., Nogueira, N. A., Bastos, G. M., Fonseca, S.

G., Lemos, T. L., Matos, F. J., Montenegro, D., Heukelbach, J., Rao, V. S., and Brito, G.

A. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides, carvacrol and thymol against oral pathogens.Botelho, M.

G. The antimicrobial activity of a dentin conditioner combined with antibacterial agents.Botelho, M.

G. The minimum inhibitory concentration of oral antibacterial agents against cariogenic organisms.Bouchra, C., Achouri, M., Idrissi Hassani, L. M., and Hmamouchi, M.

Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr.Boudry, G. and Perrier, C.

Thyme and cinnamon extracts induce anion secretion in piglet small intestine via cholinergic pathways.Boyd, E. M.

and Sheppard, E. P.

A bronchomucotropic action in rabbits from inhaled menthol and thymol.Braga, P. C., Alfieri, M., Culici, M., and Dal Sasso, M.

Inhibitory activity of thymol against the formation and viability of Candida albicans hyphae.Braga, P. C., Dal Sasso, M., Culici, M., Bianchi, T., Bordoni, L., and Marabini, L.

Anti-inflammatory activity of thymol: inhibitory effect on the release of human neutrophil elastase.Braga, P. C., Dal Sasso, M., Culici, M., Galastri, L., Marceca, M. T., and Guffanti, E. E. Antioxidant potential of thymol determined by chemiluminescence inhibition in human neutrophils and cell-free systems.Braga, P. C., Sasso, M.

D., Culici, M., and Alfieri, M. Eugenol and thymol, alone or in combination, induce morphological alterations in the envelope of Candida albicans.Brailsford, S. R., Fiske, J., Gilbert, S., Clark, D., and Beighton, D.

The effects of the combination of chlorhexidine/thymol- and fluoride-containing varnishes on the severity of root caries lesions in frail institutionalised elderly people.Bratthall, D., Serinirach, R., Rapisuwon, S., Kuratana, M., Luangjarmekorn, V., Luksila, K., and Chaipanich, P. A study into the prevention of fissure caries using an antimicrobial varnish.Brecx, M., Brownstone, E., MacDonald, L., Gelskey, S., and Cheang, M. Efficacy of Listerine, Meridol and chlorhexidine mouthrinses as supplements to regular tooth cleaning measures.BRISEID, JENSEN K.

and DYRUD, O. K.

The smooth muscle relaxing effect of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L).Buccellato, G. and Valguarnera, G.

[Studies of the anti-HeLa phenomenon in the blood of subjects with skin neoplasms treated with paramethyl-isopropyl-phenol (thymol)].Open trial to assess aspects of safety and efficacy of a combined herbal cough syrup with ivy and thyme.Burley, L. M., Fell, R.

D., and Saacke, R. G. Survival of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) spermatozoa incubated at room temperature from drones exposed to miticides.Burt, S.

A., van der, Zee R., Koets, A. P., de Graaff, A. M., van Knapen, F., Gaastra, W., Haagsman, H.

P., and Veldhuizen, E. J.

Carvacrol induces heat shock protein 60 and inhibits synthesis of flagellin in Escherichia coli O157:H7.Burt, S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods--a review.Buyukbalci, A. and El, S. N.

Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas.Buyukleyla, M. and Rencuzogullari, E. The effects of thymol on sister chromatid exchange, chromosome aberration and micronucleus in human lymphocytes.Cabo, J., Crespo, M. E., Jimenez, J., Navarro, C., and Risco, S. Seasonal Variation of Essential Oil Yield and Composition of Thymus hyemalis.Calderone, N. W.

Effective fall treatment of Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) with a new formulation of formic acid in colonies of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the northeastern United States.Camurca-Vasconcelos, A. L., Bevilaqua, C.

M., Morais, S. M., Maciel, M. V., Costa, C.

T., Macedo, I. T., Oliveira, L. M., Braga, R. R., Silva, R. A., and Vieira, L. S.

Anthelmintic activity of Croton zehntneri and Lippia sidoides essential oils.Carraminana, J. J., Rota, C., Burillo, J., and Herrera, A.

Antibacterial efficiency of Spanish Satureja montana essential oil against Listeria monocytogenes among natural flora in minced pork.A., Machado, M. I., Bantim, M.

B., and Rabelo, E. F. Larvicidal activity of the essential oil from Lippia sidoides Cham.Case, G.

L., He, L., Mo, H., and Elson, C. E. Induction of geranyl pyrophosphate pyrophosphatase activity by cholesterol-suppressive isoprenoids.Composition and acaricidal activity of Lippia sidoides essential oil against two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch).Cavara, S., Maksimovic, M., and Vidic, D. The essential oil of Thymus aureopunctatus (Beck) K. Maly.A comparative evaluation of Origanum onites essential oil and its four major components as larvicides against the pine processionary moth, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni Tams.Chen, G. Y., Yuan, Y., and Ai, K.

H. [Study on the essential oil components in Thymus quinquecostatus Celak].Chiasson, F., Borsa, J., Ouattara, B., and Lacroix, M.

Radiosensitization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi in ground beef.Chizzola, R., Michitsch, H., and Franz, C. Antioxidative properties of Thymus vulgaris leaves: comparison of different extracts and essential oil chemotypes.Determination of the antioxidant capacity of culinary herbs subjected to various cooking and storage processes using the ABTS(*+) radical cation assay.Choi, W.

S., Park, B. S., Ku, S. K., and Lee, S. E.

Repellent activities of essential oils and monoterpenes against Culex pipiens pallens.Essential oils of Satureja, Origanum, and Thymus species: chemical composition and antibacterial activities against foodborne pathogens.Chun, H., Jun, W. J., Shin, D.

H., Hong, B. S., Cho, H. Y., and Yang, H. C.

Purification and characterization of anti-complementary polysaccharide from leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. Chem Pharm Bull.Chun, H., Shin, D.

H., Hong, B. S., Cho, H.

Y., and Yang, H. C.

Purification and biological activity of acidic polysaccharide from leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. Biol Pharm Bull.Clavero, J., Baca, P., Paloma, Gonzalez M., and Valderrama, M.

J. Efficacy of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (Cervitec) against plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation in a geriatric population.Clinical trial in acute bronchitis with a fixed combination of fluid extracts of thyme herb and ivy leaves.13th Annual Symposium on Complementary Health Care, 12th-14th December, 2006, University of Exeter, UK.Study on the synergic effect of natural compounds on the microbial quality decay of packed fish hamburger.Cosentino, S., Tuberoso, C.

I., Pisano, B., Satta, M., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., and Palmas, F. In-vitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils.Cosyn, J., Wyn, I., De Rouck, T., Collys, K., Bottenberg, P., Matthijs, S., and Sabzevar, M. M. Short-term anti-plaque effect of two chlorhexidine varnishes.Couladis, M., Tzakou, O., Kujundzic, S., Sokovic, M., and Mimica-Dukic, N.

Chemical analysis and antifungal activity of Thymus striatus.Cristani, M., D'Arrigo, M., Mandalari, G., Castelli, F., Sarpietro, M. G., Micieli, D., Venuti, V., Bisignano, G., Saija, A., and Trombetta, D.

Interaction of four monoterpenes contained in essential oils with model membranes: implications for their antibacterial activity.Cuzzolin, L. and Benoni, G. Attitudes and knowledge toward natural products safety in the pharmacy setting: an Italian study.Daemon, E., Oliveira Monteiro, C.

M., Dos Santos, Rosa L., Aparecido, Clemente M., and Arcoverde, A.Evaluation of the acaricide activity of thymol on engorged and unengorged larvae of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1808) (Acari: Ixodidae).Dalleau, S., Cateau, E., Berges, T., Berjeaud, J. M., and Imbert, C. In vitro activity of terpenes against Candida biofilms.A., and Rubinstein, H. R.

Inhibitory effect of cyclic terpenes (limonene, menthol, menthone and thymol) on Fusarium verticillioides MRC 826 growth and fumonisin B1 biosynthesis.A., and Eguaras, M. J. Acaricidal and insecticidal activity of essential oils on Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).Del Nobile, M.

A., Corbo, M. R., Speranza, B., Sinigaglia, M., Conte, A., and Caroprese, M.

Combined effect of MAP and active compounds on fresh blue fish burger.Demirci, F., Paper, D. H., Franz, G., and Baser, K.

H. Investigation of the Origanum onites L. essential oil using the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay.DePaola, L. G., Overholser, C.

D., Meiller, T. F., Minah, G.

E., and Niehaus, C. Chemotherapeutic inhibition of supragingival dental plaque and gingivitis development.Derks, A., Frencken, J., Bronkhorst, E., Kuijpers-Jagtman, A. M., and Katsaros, C. Effect of chlorhexidine varnish application on mutans streptococci counts in orthodontic patients.Di Pasqua, R., Betts, G., Hoskins, N., Edwards, M., Ercolini, D., and Mauriello, G. Membrane toxicity of antimicrobial compounds from essential oils.Di Pasqua, R., Hoskins, N., Betts, G., and Mauriello, G. Changes in membrane fatty acids composition of microbial cells induced by addiction of thymol, carvacrol, limonene, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol in the growing media.Di Pasqua, R., Mamone, G., Ferranti, P., Ercolini, D., and Mauriello, G.

Changes in the proteome of Salmonella enterica serovar Thompson as stress adaptation to sublethal concentrations of thymol.Diaz-Maroto, M. C., Diaz-Maroto, Hidalgo, I, Sanchez-Palomo, E., and Perez-Coello, M.

S. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.).Dob T, Dahmane D, Benabdelkader T, and Chelghoum C. Studies on the essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of Thymus algeriensis Boiss.Dorman, H.

J., Bachmayer, O., Kosar, M., and Hiltunen, R. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species grown in Turkey.Dragland, S., Senoo, H., Wake, K., Holte, K., and Blomhoff, R. Several culinary and medicinal herbs are important sources of dietary antioxidants.Dudic, V. B., Lang, N.

P., and Mombelli, A. Microbiological and clinical effects of an antiseptic dental varnish after mechanical periodontal therapy.Dunne, S. M., Goolnik, J.

S., Millar, B. J., and Seddon, R.

P. Caries inhibition by a resin-modified and a conventional glass ionomer cement, in vitro.Dupeyron, J. P., Quattrocchi, F., Castaing, H., and Fabiani, P.

[Acute poisoning of an infant by cutaneous application of a local counterirritant and pulmonary antiseptic salve].Echeverrigaray, S., Agostini, G., Atti-Serfini, L., Paroul, N., Pauletti, G. F., and dos Santos, A.

C. Correlation between the chemical and genetic relationships among commercial thyme cultivars.Eftekhar, F., Nariman, F., Yousefzadi, M., Hadiand, J., and Ebrahimi, S.

N. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and essential oil composition of Thymus caramanicus from Iran.Ekenback, S. B., Linder, L.

E., and Lonnies, H. Effect of four dental varnishes on the colonization of cariogenic bacteria on exposed sound root surfaces.Determination of iodine in Libyan food samples using epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis.El Maraghy, S.

S. Effect of some spices as preservatives for storage of lentil (Lens esculenta L.) seeds.Study on the antinociceptive effects of Thymus broussonetii Boiss extracts in mice and rats.Elhabazi, K., Dicko, A., Desor, F., Dalal, A., Younos, C., and Soulimani, R. Preliminary study on immunological and behavioural effects of Thymus broussonetii Boiss., an endemic species in Morocco.Elissondo, M.

C., Albani, C. M., Gende, L., Eguaras, M., and Denegri, G.

Efficacy of thymol against Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces.Englberger, W., Hadding, U., Etschenberg, E., Graf, E., Leyck, S., Winkelmann, J., and Parnham, M. J. Rosmarinic acid: a new inhibitor of complement C3-convertase with anti- inflammatory activity.Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A. N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310.Ernst E, Marz R, and Sieder C.

A controlled multi-centre study of herbal versus synthetic secretolytic drugs for acute bronchitis.Eronat, C. and Alpoz, A.

R. Effect of Cervitec varnish on the salivary Streptococcus mutans levels in the patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.Ersin, N.

K., Eden, E., Eronat, N., Totu, F. I., and Ates, M. Effectiveness of 2-year application of school-based chlorhexidine varnish, sodium fluoride gel, and dental health education programs in high-risk adolescents.Fabian, D., Sabol, M., Domaracka, K., and Bujnakova, D.

Essential oils--their antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and effect on intestinal cell viability.Farinacci, M., Colitti, M., Sgorlon, S., and Stefanon, B. Immunomodulatory activity of plant residues on ovine neutrophils.Fine, D. H., Furgang, D., and Barnett, M.

L. Comparative antimicrobial activities of antiseptic mouthrinses against isogenic planktonic and biofilm forms of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.Fine, D. H., Furgang, D., Barnett, M.

L., Drew, C., Steinberg, L., Charles, C. H., and Vincent, J.

W. Effect of an essential oil-containing antiseptic mouthrinse on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels.A. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thymol in Listerine for treatment of paronychia.Flick, M.

R., Milligan, S. A., Hoeffel, J.

M., and Goldstein, I. M. Catalase prevents increased lung vascular permeability during air emboli in unanesthetized sheep.Comparison between two thymol formulations in the control of Varroa destructor: effectiveness, persistence, and residues.Inactivation of the complement cascade in vitro by vegetal spices (Ocimum basilicum, Artemisia dracunculus and Thymus vulgaris).Garcia, D. A., Bujons, J., Vale, C., and Sunol, C. Allosteric positive interaction of thymol with the GABAA receptor in primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons.Garcia, D. A., Vendrell, I., Galofre, M., and Sunol, C.

GABA released from cultured cortical neurons influences the modulation of t-[(35)S]butylbicyclophosphorothionate binding at the GABAA receptor Effects of thymol.Effect of plant essential oils as acaricides against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, with special focus on exposure time.A., and Guy, J. H. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.A., and Guy, J. H.

The influence of 'time since last blood meal' on the toxicity of essential oils to the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).A., Port, G., Okello, E., Shiel, R. S., and Guy, J.

H. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor.Gokalp, S.

and Baseren, M. Use of laser fluorescence in monitoring the durability and cariostatic effects of fluoride and chlorhexidine varnishes on occlusal caries: a clinical study.Goodis, H.

E., Marshall, G. W., Jr., and White, J. M.

The effects of storage after extraction of the teeth on human dentine permeability in vitro.Grabensteiner, E., Arshad, N., and Hess, M. Differences in the in vitro susceptibility of mono-eukaryotic cultures of Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis sp.Grabensteiner, E., Liebhart, D., Arshad, N., and Hess, M.

Antiprotozoal activities determined in vitro and in vivo of certain plant extracts against Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis sp.Granger, R., Passet, J., and Pinede, M. C.

[On the biogenetic independence of linalol and terpineol-alpha in Thymus vulgaris L.].Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., and Busch, R.

Efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of thyme and primrose root in patients with acute bronchitis.Gruenwald, J., Graubaum, H. J., and Busch, R.

Evaluation of the non-inferiority of a fixed combination of thyme fluid- and primrose root extract in comparison to a fixed combination of thyme fluid extract and primrose root tincture in patients with acute bronchitis.Guillen, F., Zapata, P. J., Martinez-Romero, D., Castillo, S., Serrano, M., and Valero, D.

Improvement of the overall quality of table grapes stored under modified atmosphere packaging in combination with natural antimicrobial compounds.Guo, N., Liu, J., Wu, X., Bi, X., Meng, R., Wang, X., Xiang, H., Deng, X., and Yu, L. Antifungal activity of thymol against clinical isolates of fluconazole-sensitive and -resistant Candida albicans.[Research on the chemical composition and aspects of the pharmacological action of the essential oil of Kochi thyme (Thymus kotschyanus Boiss)].Guynot, M.

E., Ramos, A. J., Seto, L., Purroy, P., Sanchis, V., and Marin, S. Antifungal activity of volatile compounds generated by essential oils against fungi commonly causing deterioration of bakery products.Effect of gamma and e-beam radiation on the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris thymoliferum, Eucalyptus radiata, and Lavandula angustifolia.Haeseler, G., Maue, D., Grosskreutz, J., Bufler, J., Nentwig, B., Piepenbrock, S., Dengler, R., and Leuwer, M. Voltage-dependent block of neuronal and skeletal muscle sodium channels by thymol and menthol.Hagmuller, W., Jugl-Chizzola, M., Zitterl-Eglseer, K., Gabler, C., Spergser, J., Chizzola, R., and Franz, C. The use of Thymi Herba as feed additive (0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%) in weanling piglets with assessment of the shedding of haemolysing E. coli and the detection of thymol in the blood plasma.Hajjar, E., Perahia, D., Debat, H., Nespoulous, C., and Robert, C.

H. Odorant binding and conformational dynamics in the odorant-binding protein.Common thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as employed for the ancient methods of embalming.Hammad, M., Sallal, A. K., and Darmani, H. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Thymus vulgaris.Hanci, S., Sahin, S., and Yilmaz, L.

Isolation of volatile oil from thyme (Thymbra spicata) by steam distillation.Haraguchi, H., Saito, T., Ishikawa, H., Date, H., Kataoka, S., Tamura, Y., and Mizutani, K. Antiperoxidative components in Thymus vulgaris.Haroun, E. M., Mahmoud, O. M., and Adam, S. E. Effect of feeding Cuminum cyminum fruits, Thymus vulgaris leaves or their mixture to rats.Effects of herbal essential oils used to extend the shelf life of freshwater-reared Asian sea bass fish (Lates calcarifer).A rapid method for evaluating microbicidal activity of dentifrice formulations against salivary bacteria ex vivo.Hazzit, M., Baaliouamer, A., Faleiro, M.

L., and Miguel, M. G. Composition of the essential oils of Thymus and Origanum species from Algeria and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.Heil, T.

P. and Lindsay, R.

C. Toxicological properties of thio- and alkylphenols causing flavor tainting in fish from the upper Wisconsin River.Heintze, S. D. and Twetman, S. Interdental mutans streptococci suppression in vivo: a comparison of different chlorhexidine regimens in relation to restorative material.Hikiba, H., Watanabe, E., Barrett, J. C., and Tsutsui, T.

Ability of fourteen chemical agents used in dental practice to induce chromosome aberrations in Syrian hamster embryo cells.Increased 45Ca-efflux from smooth muscle microsomes by a rise in an extramicrosomal Ca ion concentration, and the effect of thymol.Hitokoto, H., Morozumi, S., Wauke, T., Sakai, S., and Kurata, H. Inhibitory effects of spices on growth and toxin production of toxigenic fungi.Horvathova, E., Sramkova, M., Labaj, J., and Slamenova, D.

Study of cytotoxic, genotoxic and DNA-protective effects of selected plant essential oils on human cells cultured in vitro.Horvathova, E., Turcaniova, V., and Slamenova, D. Comparative study of DNA-damaging and DNA-protective effects of selected components of essential plant oils in human leukemic cells K562.Hotta, M., Nakata, R., Katsukawa, M., Hori, K., Takahashi, S., and Inoue, H. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.Hu, M. R., Chao, Y.

P., Zhang, G. Q., Xue, Z.

Q., and Qian, S. Laccase-mediator system in the decolorization of different types of recalcitrant dyes.Hu, Y., Du, Y., Wang, X., and Feng, T. Self-aggregation of water-soluble chitosan and solubilization of thymol as an antimicrobial agent.Huang, M. H., Wu, S.

N., and Shen, A. Y.

Stimulatory actions of thymol, a natural product, on Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current in pituitary GH(3) cells.Hudaib, M., Speroni, E., Di Pietra, A. M., and Cavrini, V.

GC/MS evaluation of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil composition and variations during the vegetative cycle.Huizinga, E. D., Ruben, J. L., and Arends, J.

Chlorhexidine and thymol release from a varnish system.Acute, sublethal, antifeedant, and synergistic effects of monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Lep., Noctuidae).Hussein A, Mansour BMM, Toaima N, Craker L, and Shetty K. Tissue culture selection for phenolics and rosmarinic acid in thyme.Inouye S and Abe S. Predominant adsorption of sesquiterpene constituents of lavender, tea tree, lemongrass and thyme thymol oils on hairless mouse and human hairs in an aromatic bath.Inouye S, Uchida K, and Abe S. Volatile composition and vapour activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes of 36 aromatic herbs cultivated in Chichibu district in Japan.Inouye, S., Tsuruoka, T., Watanabe, M., Takeo, K., Akao, M., Nishiyama, Y., and Yamaguchi, H. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on apical growth of Aspergillus fumigatus by vapour contact.Inouye, S., Uchida, K., and Yamaguchi, H. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-Trichophyton activity of essential oils by vapour contact.Inouye, S., Uchida, K., Nishiyama, Y., Hasumi, Y., Yamaguchi, H., and Abe, S.

Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.Inouye, S., Watanabe, M., Nishiyama, Y., Takeo, K., Akao, M., and Yamaguchi, H. Antisporulating and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils on filamentous fungi.Irkin, R. and Korukluoglu, M.

Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria and some yeasts by selected essential oils and survival of L. monocytogenes and C. albicans in apple-carrot juice.Ismail, S. A., Dea, T., Abd El-Rahman, H., Yassien, M.

A., and Beuchat, L. R. Effectiveness of immersion treatments with acids, trisodium phosphate, and herb decoctions in reducing populations of Yarrowia lipolytica and naturally occurring aerobic microorganisms on raw chicken.Isman, M.

B., Wan, A. J., and Passreiter, C.

M. Insecticidal activity of essential oils to the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura.Ito, S., Sakamoto, Y., and Kuriyama, H. [Proceedings: Effects of caffeine and thymol on the gastric and rectal smooth muscles of the guinea pig].The effects of thymol on the electrical and mechanical properties of guinea pig taenia coli (author's transl)].Ito, Y.

and Kuriyama, H. Effects of thymol on the electrical and mechanical properties of the guinea-pig taenia coli.Jadayil, S. A., Tukan, S.

K., and Takruri, H. R.

Bioavailability of iron from four different local food plants in Jordan.Janczyk, P., Trevisi, P., Souffrant, W. B., and Bosi, P.

Effect of thymol on microbial diversity in the porcine jejunum.Jeong, E. Y., Lim, J. H., Kim, H.

G., and Lee, H. S.

Acaricidal activity of Thymus vulgaris oil and its main components against Tyrophagus putrescentiae, a stored food mite.Johansen, C. A., Hall, R. A., van den Hurk, A. F., Ritchie, S.

A., and Mackenzie, J. S.

Detection and stability of Japanese encephalitis virus RNA and virus viability in dead infected mosquitoes under different storage conditions.Prevention of pit and fissure caries using an antimicrobial varnish: 9 month clinical evaluation.Johnson, G. and Almqvist, H.

Non-invasive management of superficial root caries lesions in disabled and infirm patients.Juneja, V. K.

and Friedman, M. Carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, oregano oil, and thymol inhibit Clostridium perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in ground turkey during chilling.Juneja, V.

K., Thippareddi, H., and Friedman, M. Control of Clostridium perfringens in cooked ground beef by carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, thymol, or oregano oil during chilling.Juven, B. J., Kanner, J., Schved, F., and Weisslowicz, H.

Factors that interact with the antibacterial action of thyme essential oil and its active constituents.Kagramanov KM and et al. Effect of the essential oils of some thyme growing in Azerbaidzhan on cardiovascular activity and respiration.Kamataki, T., Sugita, O., Naminohira, S., and Kitagawa, H.

Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.Spice derived essential oils: effective antifungal and possible therapeutic agents.Kanat, M. and Alma, M.

H. Insecticidal effects of essential oils from various plants against larvae of pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff) (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae).Kato, T., Iijima, H., Ishihara, K., Kaneko, T., Hirai, K., Naito, Y., and Okuda, K. Antibacterial effects of Listerine on oral bacteria.Evaluation of efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of dry extracts of thyme herb and primrose root in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough.Kemmerich, B., Eberhardt, R., and Stammer, H.

Efficacy and tolerability of a fluid extract combination of thyme herb and ivy leaves and matched placebo in adults suffering from acute bronchitis with productive cough.Kern, M., Fechtig, T., and Strub, J. R.

Influence of water storage and thermal cycling on the fracture strength of all-porcelain, resin-bonded fixed partial dentures.Kidd, M., Modlin, I. M., Gustafsson, B. I., Drozdov, I., Hauso, O., and Pfragner, R.

Luminal regulation of normal and neoplastic human EC cell serotonin release is mediated by bile salts, amines, tastants, and olfactants.Comprehensive study on vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of various polyphenolics in scavenging a free radical and its structural relationship.Kim, J., Campbell, B., Mahoney, N., Chan, K., Molyneux, R., and May, G. Chemosensitization prevents tolerance of Aspergillus fumigatus to antimycotic drugs.Kim, S. I., Yi, J. H., Tak, J.

H., and Ahn, Y. J.

Acaricidal activity of plant essential oils against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).Kluth, D., Banning, A., Paur, I., Blomhoff, R., and Brigelius-Flohe, R. Modulation of pregnane X receptor- and electrophile responsive element-mediated gene expression by dietary polyphenolic compounds.Knio, K.

M., Usta, J., Dagher, S., Zournajian, H., and Kreydiyyeh, S. Larvicidal activity of essential oils extracted from commonly used herbs in Lebanon against the seaside mosquito, Ochlerotatus caspius.Koch, C., Reichling, J., Schneele, J., and Schnitzler, P.

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2.Kohlert, C., Abel, G., Schmid, E., and Veit, M. Determination of thymol in human plasma by automated headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic analysis.Kolodziejska, J., Berner-Strzelczyk, A., and Piechota-Urbanska, M.

[Application of thyme extract in the prescription of dental gels produced on Carbopol base].Kong, J. O., Park, I. K., Choi, K. S., Shin, S. C., and Ahn, Y. J.

Nematicidal and Propagation Activities of Thyme Red and White Oil Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae).Kostaki, M., Giatrakou, V., Savvaidis, I. N., and Kontominas, M. G. Combined effect of MAP and thyme essential oil on the microbiological, chemical and sensory attributes of organically aquacultured sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fillets.Krizaj, D., Bao, J. X., Schmitz, Y., Witkovsky, P., and Copenhagen, D. R.

Caffeine-sensitive calcium stores regulate synaptic transmission from retinal rod photoreceptors.The effect of thymol and its derivatives on reactions generating reactive oxygen species.Kulevanova, S., Kaftandzieva, A., Dimitrovska, A., Stefkov, G., Grdanoska, T., and Panovski, N. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of essential oils of several Macedonian Thymus L. species (Lamiaceae).Kulieva, Z. T.

[Analgesic, hypotensive and cardiotonic action of the essential oil of the thyme growing in Azerbaijan].Kulisic, T., Krisko, A., Dragovic-Uzelac, V., Milos, M., and Pifat, G. The effects of essential oils and aqueous tea infusions of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.

spp.Lans, C., Turner, N., and Khan, T. Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.Lebert, I., Leroy, S., and Talon, R.

Effect of industrial and natural biocides on spoilage, pathogenic and technological strains grown in biofilm.LeBlanc, B. W., Boue, S., De Grandi, Hoffman G., Deeby, T., McCready, H., and Loeffelmann, K. Beta-cyclodextrins as carriers of monoterpenes into the hemolymph of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) for integrated pest management.Lee, H.

S. Acaricidal activity of constituents identified in Foeniculum vulgare fruit oil against Dermatophagoides spp.Lee, K.

G. and Shibamoto, T.

Determination of antioxidant potential of volatile extracts isolated from various herbs and spices.Lee, S. P., Buber, M. T., Yang, Q., Cerne, R., Cortes, R.

Y., Sprous, D. G., and Bryant, R. W.

Thymol and related alkyl phenols activate the hTRPA1 channel.Lee, S., Tsao, R., Peterson, C., and Coats, J. R. Insecticidal activity of monoterpenoids to western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).Lei, J., Leser, M., and Enan, E.

Nematicidal activity of two monoterpenoids and SER-2 tyramine receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans.Lewis, S. E., Anderson, P., and Goldspink, D.

F. The effects of calcium on protein turnover in skeletal muscles of the rat.Lindberg, C.

M., Melathopoulos, A. P., and Winston, M. L.

Laboratory evaluation of miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae), a honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) parasite.Lis-Balchin, M. and Hart, S.

A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro.Liu, T. Z.

Thymol is a suitable preservative for uric acid standards in the uricase technique.Llewellyn, G. C., Burkett, M. L., and Eadie, T. Potential mold growth, aflatoxin production, and antimycotic activity of selected natural spices and herbs.Loboda, A., Cisowski, J., Zarebski, A., Jazwa, A., Riviera, Nunez D., Kypriotakis, Z., Heinrich, M., and Dulak, J.Effects of plant extracts on angiogenic activities of endothelial cells and keratinocytes.Lopez-Malo, A., Alzamora, S.

M., and Palou, E. Aspergillus flavus dose-response curves to selected natural and synthetic antimicrobials.Lopez-Malo, A., Maris, Alzamora S., and Palou, E.

Aspergillus flavus growth in the presence of chemical preservatives and naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds.Lorenzi, S., Placucci, F., Vincenzi, C., Bardazzi, F., and Tosti, A. Allergic contact dermatitis due to thymol.Loughlin, M.

F., Jones, M. V., and Lambert, P.

A. Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells adapted to benzalkonium chloride show resistance to other membrane-active agents but not to clinically relevant antibiotics.Loziene, K., Vaiciuniene, J., and Venskutonis, P.

R. Chemical composition of the essential oil of creeping thyme (Thymus serpyllum s.l.).Mackiewicz, B., Skorska, C., Dutkiewicz, J., Michnar, M., Milanowski, J., Prazmo, Z., Krysinska-Traczyk, E., and Cisak, E.

Allergic alveolitis due to herb dust exposure.Madlena, M., Vitalyos, G., Marton, S., and Nagy, G. Effect of chlorhexidine varnish on bacterial levels in plaque and saliva during orthodontic treatment.Magyar, J., Szentandrassy, N., Banyasz, T., Fulop, L., Varro, A., and Nanasi, P.

P. Effects of terpenoid phenol derivatives on calcium current in canine and human ventricular cardiomyocytes.Magyar, J., Szentandrassy, N., Banyasz, T., Fulop, L., Varro, A., and Nanasi, P. P. Effects of thymol on calcium and potassium currents in canine and human ventricular cardiomyocytes.Mahmoud, A. L. Antifungal action and antiaflatoxigenic properties of some essential oil constituents.Mahmoud, B.

S., Yamazaki, K., Miyashita, K., Kawai, Y., Shin, I. S., and Suzuki, T.

Preservative effect of combined treatment with electrolyzed NaCl solutions and essential oil compounds on carp fillets during convectional air-drying.Mahmud, H., Mauro, D., Foller, M., and Lang, F. Inhibitory effect of thymol on suicidal erythrocyte death.Makino, H., Yamada, T., and Shimizu, H.

Difference in the mechanism of the action of caffeine and thymol on the calcium sequestering property of sarcoplasmic reticulum of frog skinned muscle fibers.Manabe, A., Nakayama, S., and Sakamoto, K. Effects of essential oils on erythrocytes and hepatocytes from rats and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine-liposomes.Evaluation of the preservative properties of Thymus vulgaris essential oil in topically applied formulations under a challenge test.Marsik, P., Kokoska, L., Landa, P., Nepovim, A., Soudek, P., and Vanek, T.

In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses.Martinez-Gonzalez, M. C., Goday Bujan, J. J., Martinez, Gomez W., and Fonseca, Capdevila E.

Concomitant allergic contact dermatitis due to Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme).Non-interventional postmarketing surveillance study confirms the benefit and safety of a syrup made of extracts from thyme and ivy leaves].Masamoto, Y., Kawabata, F., and Fushiki, T. Intragastric administration of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8, and TRPA1 agonists modulates autonomic thermoregulation in different manners in mice.Mastelic, J., Jerkovic, I., Blazevic, I., Poljak-Blazi, M., Borovic, S., Ivancic-Bace, I., Smrecki, V., Zarkovic, N., Brcic-Kostic, K., Vikic-Topic, D., and Muller, N.

Comparative study on the antioxidant and biological activities of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol derivatives.Meesters, R. J., Duisken, M., and Hollender, J.

Cytochrome P450-catalysed arene-epoxidation of the bioactive tea tree oil ingredient p-cymene: indication for the formation of a reactive allergenic intermediate?Mezzoug, N., Elhadri, A., Dallouh, A., Amkiss, S., Skali, N. S., Abrini, J., Zhiri, A., Baudoux, D., Diallo, B., El Jaziri, M., and Idaomar, M. Investigation of the mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of Origanum compactum essential oil and some of its constituents.In vitro effect of essential oils and isolated mono- and sesquiterpenes on Leishmania major and Trypanosoma brucei.Milligan, S.

A., Hoeffel, J. M., Goldstein, I. M., and Flick, M.

R. Effect of catalase on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in unanesthetized sheep.Minah, G. E., DePaola, L. G., Overholser, C.

D., Meiller, T. F., Niehaus, C., Lamm, R. A., Ross, N.

M., and Dills, S. S. Effects of 6 months use of an antiseptic mouthrinse on supragingival dental plaque microflora.Miura, K., Kikuzaki, H., and Nakatani, N. Antioxidant activity of chemical components from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) measured by the oil stability index method.Mockute, D. and Bernotiene, G. The main citral-geraniol and carvacrol chemotypes of the essential oil of thymus pulegioides L.

growing wild in vilnius district (Lithuania).Structural requirements of phenol derivatives for direct activation of chloride currents via GABA(A) receptors.Isolation and identification of antibacterial compounds from Thymus kotschyanus aerial parts and Dianthus caryophyllus flower buds.Mojab, F., Poursaeed, M., Mehrgan, H., and Pakdaman, S. Antibacterial activity of Thymus daenensis methanolic extract.Montes-Belmont, R.

and Carvajal, M. Control of Aspergillus flavus in maize with plant essential oils and their components.A., El Kady, M. B., Nemat, F.

M., and Morsy, M. E. A novel approach for the management of the chalkbrood disease infesting honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in Egypt.Mourtzinos, I., Kalogeropoulos, N., Papadakis, S. E., Konstantinou, K., and Karathanos, V. T.

Encapsulation of nutraceutical monoterpenes in beta-cyclodextrin and modified starch.Muhlbauer, R. C., Lozano, A., Palacio, S., Reinli, A., and Felix, R.

Common herbs, essential oils, and monoterpenes potently modulate bone metabolism.Murayama, M. AMS (acute mountain sickness), a vascular occlusive disease.Naderi, G. A., Asgary, S., Ani, M., Sarraf-Zadegan, N., and Safari, M. R. Effect of some volatile oils on the affinity of intact and oxidized low-density lipoproteins for adrenal cell surface receptors.Nafisi, Sh, Hajiakhoondi, A., and Yektadoost, A. Thymol and carvacrol binding to DNA: model for drug-DNA interaction.Nelson, R.

F., Rodasti, P. C., Tichnor, A., and Lio, Y.

L. Comparative study of four over-the-counter mouthrinses claiming antiplaque and/or antigingivitis benefits.B., Dakole, C.

D., Leth, V., Vismer, H. F., Torp, J., Guemdjom, E. F., Mbeffo, M., Tamgue, O., Fotio, D., Zollo, P.

H., and Nkengfack, A. E. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi.Nilforoushzadeh, M. A., Shirani-Bidabadi, L., Zolfaghari-Baghbaderani, A., Saberi, S., Siadat, A. H., and Mahmoudi, M. Comparison of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme), Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) and propolis hydroalcoholic extracts versus systemic glucantime in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in balb/c mice.Ogaard, B., Larsson, E., Glans, R., Henriksson, T., and Birkhed, D.

Antimicrobial effect of a chlorhexidine-thymol varnish (Cervitec) in orthodontic patients.Application and exploration of fast gas chromatography-surface acoustic wave sensor to the analysis of thymus species.Oka, Y., Nacar, S., Putievsky, E., Ravid, U., Yaniv, Z., and Spiegel, Y. Nematicidal activity of essential oils and their components against the root-knot nematode.Oliveira Monteiro, C.

M., Daemon, E., Aparecido, Clemente M., Dos Santos, Rosa L., and Maturano, R. Acaricidal efficacy of thymol on engorged nymphs and females of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1808) (Acari: Ixodidae).Oliveira Monteiro, C. M., Daemon, E., Silva, A.

M., Maturano, R., and Amaral, C. Acaricide and ovicide activities of thymol on engorged females and eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).Ouattara, B., Sabato, S. F., and Lacroix, M.

Combined effect of antimicrobial coating and gamma irradiation on shelf life extension of pre-cooked shrimp (Penaeus spp.).Overholser, C. D., Meiller, T.

F., DePaola, L. G., Minah, G. E., and Niehaus, C.

Comparative effects of 2 chemotherapeutic mouthrinses on the development of supragingival dental plaque and gingivitis.Oyebola, D. D. Cow's urine concoction: its chemical composition, pharmacological actions and mode of lethality.Ozcan, M. Effect of spice hydrosols on the growth of Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 strain.Paaver, U., Orav, A., Arak, E., Maeorg, U., and Raal, A.

Phytochemical analysis of the essential oil of Thymus serpyllum L. growing wild in Estonia.Determination of the in situ bactericidal activity of an essential oil mouthrinse using a vital stain method.Pandey, S. K., Upadhyay, S., and Tripathi, A. K.

Insecticidal and repellent activities of thymol from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (Linn) Sprague seeds against Anopheles stephensi.Parnas, M., Peters, M., Dadon, D., Lev, S., Vertkin, I., Slutsky, I., and Minke, B. Carvacrol is a novel inhibitor of Drosophila TRPL and mammalian TRPM7 channels.Use of different methods of formulation: the effect of essential oils of thyme on stability].Passreiter, C. M., Wilson, J., Andersen, R., and Isman, M.

B. Metabolism of thymol and trans-anethole in larvae of Spodoptera litura and Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).Pauli, A. and Knobloch, K.

Inhibitory effects of essential oil components on growth of food-contaminating fungi.Pavela, R. Larvicidal effects of various Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).Pavela, R., Vrchotova, N., and Triska, J. Mosquitocidal activities of thyme oils (Thymus vulgaris L.) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).Peixoto-Neves, D., Silva-Alves, K.

S., Gomes, M. D., Lima, F. C., Lahlou, S., Magalhaes, P.

J., Ceccatto, V. M., Coelho-de-Souza, A. N., and Leal-Cardoso, J.

H. Vasorelaxant effects of the monoterpenic phenol isomers, carvacrol and thymol, on rat isolated aorta.Penalver, P., Huerta, B., Borge, C., Astorga, R., Romero, R., and Perea, A.

Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family.Perdok, J. F., Van Der Mei, H.

C., Busscher, H. J., Genet, M.

J., and Rouxhet, P. G.

Surface free energies and elemental surface compositions of human enamel after application of commercially available mouthrinses and adsorption of salivary constituents.Chemical polymorphism of the essential oils from populations of Thymus caespititius grown on the island S. Jorge (Azores).Chemical polymorphism of the essential oils from populations of Thymus caespititius grown on the island S. Jorge (Azores).[Effect on the growth of 5 bacterial species of oral flora of a menthol-thymol-salicylic acid-tetracaine chlorhydrate compound].Petersson, L. G., Edwardsson, S., and Arends, J.

Antimicrobial effect of a dental varnish, in vitro.Petersson, L. G., Magnusson, K., Andersson, H., Almquist, B., and Twetman, S. Effect of quarterly treatments with a chlorhexidine and a fluoride varnish on approximal caries in caries-susceptible teenagers: a 3-year clinical study.Petersson, L. G., Maki, Y., Twetman, S., and Edwardsson, S.

Mutans streptococci in saliva and interdental spaces after topical applications of an antibacterial varnish in schoolchildren.Pezo, D., Salafranca, J., and Nerin, C. Determination of the antioxidant capacity of active food packagings by in situ gas-phase hydroxyl radical generation and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.Pinto, E., Pina-Vaz, C., Salgueiro, L., Goncalves, M. J., Costa-de-Oliveira, S., Cavaleiro, C., Palmeira, A., Rodrigues, A., and Martinez-de-Oliveira, J.

Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus pulegioides on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.Piovano, S., Marcantoni, M., Dono, R., and Bellagamba, H. Effect of a chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans in saliva.Pitts, G., Brogdon, C., Hu, L., Masurat, T., Pianotti, R., and Schumann, P.

Mechanism of action of an antiseptic, anti-odor mouthwash.Plotzitza, B., Kneist, S., Berger, J., and Hetzer, G. Efficacy of chlorhexidine varnish applications in the prevention of early childhood caries.Pozo-Insfran, D., Follo-Martinez, A., Talcott, S.

T., and Brenes, C. H. Stability of copigmented anthocyanins and ascorbic acid in muscadine grape juice processed by high hydrostatic pressure.Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J.

M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp.Preston, K.

P., Higham, S. M., and Smith, P. W. The efficacy of techniques for the disinfection of artificial sub-surface dentinal caries lesions and their effect on demineralization and remineralization in vitro.Purk, J. H., Roberts, R. S., Elledge, D.

A., Chappell, R. P., and Eick, J. D. Marginal ridge strength of Class II tunnel restorations.Content and composition of the essential oil of Thymus serpyllum L. growing wild in Estonia.Radwan, M. A., El Zemity, S.

R., Mohamed, S. A., and Sherby, S. M.

Potential of some monoterpenoids and their new N-methyl carbamate derivatives against Schistosomiasis snail vector, Biomphalaria alexandrina.Ramanoelina, A. R., Terrom, G.

P., Bianchini, J. P., and Coulanges, P. [Antibacterial action of essential oils extracted from Madagascar plants].Rana, P.

and Soni, G. Antioxidant potential of thyme extract: alleviation of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced oxidative stress.Rasooli, I. and Owlia, P.

Chemoprevention by thyme oils of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production.Rasooli, I., Rezaei, M. B., and Allameh, A. Ultrastructural studies on antimicrobial efficacy of thyme essential oils on Listeria monocytogenes.Rattanapitigorn P, Arakawa M, and Tsuro M. Vanillin enhances the antifungal effect of plant essential oils against Botrytis cinerea.Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M., Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M., Yoshinari, T., Rezaee, M.

B., Jaimand, K., Nagasawa, H., and Sakuda, S. Inhibitory effects of Satureja hortensis L.

essential oil on growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus.Reichling, J., Nolkemper, S., Stintzing, F. C., and Schnitzler, P.

Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpesvirus infectivity in cell culture.Reiner, G. N., Labuckas, D. O., and Garcia, D. A. Lipophilicity of some GABAergic phenols and related compounds determined by HPLC and partition coefficients in different systems.Reiter, M. and Brandt, W.

Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig.Ribeiro, L. G., Hashizume, L. N., and Maltz, M.

Effect of different 1% chlorhexidine varnish regimens on mutans streptococci levels in saliva and dental biofilm.[Effects of some chemical and physical agents on the metacestode Taenia solium in spicy meat and sausage].In vitro and in vivo cytotoxicities and antileishmanial activities of thymol and hemisynthetic derivatives.[Application of chemiluminescent methods for analysis of the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts].Sacchetti, G., Medici, A., Maietti, S., Radice, M., Muzzoli, M., Manfredini, S., Braccioli, E., and Bruni, R. Composition and functional properties of the essential oil of amazonian basil, Ocimum micranthum Willd., Labiatae in comparison with commercial essential oils.Samarasekera, R., Weerasinghe, I.

S., and Hemalal, K. P.

Insecticidal activity of menthol derivatives against mosquitoes.Effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oils on Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) growth and ultrastructure.Effect of natural phenol derivatives on skeletal type sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase and ryanodine receptor.Sasaki, K., Wada, K., Tanaka, Y., Yoshimura, T., Matuoka, K., and Anno, T. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves and its constituents incre.



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